In this work I address the challenge of augmenting n-gram language models according to prior linguistic intuitions. I argue that the family of hierarchical Pitman-Yor language models is an attractive vehicle through which to address the problem, and demonstrate the approach by proposing a model for German compounds. In an empirical evaluation, the model outperforms the Kneser-Ney model in terms of perplexity, and achieves preliminary improvements in English-German translation.
Understanding the Linux Kernel helps readers understand how Linux performs best and how
it meets the challenge of different environments. The authors introduce each topic by
explaining its importance, and show how kernel operations relate to the utilities that are
familiar to Unix programmers and users.
To better understand the contemporary world, the world of innovation and
technology, the science should try to synthesize and assimilate the social science and
humanities in the development of our civilization.
The emerging scientific and policy challenges of nanotech- nology are examined from an environmental perspective. Na- notechnology will bring env- ironmental benefi ts but it is vital that we adopt appro- priate assessment and legis- lative processes to address the unique challenges presented by nanomaterials and their life cycles.
This collection of papers reflects the diversity of concepts, methods, and case studies that
address the challenge of
Managing for Healthy Ecosystems
as holistic environmental management
in the context of health, integrity, and sustainability.
embodies the capacity of
ecosystems to function without impairment, while
concerns the assessment of ecosystem
conditions relative to social goals and adoption of interventions to achieve designated goals.
Allocation is a cross-cutting challenge that has risen to priority status with the rapidly
approaching deadlines for the implementation of annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability
measures (AMs). Allocation discussions and decisions are unique to each fishery and are shaped
by innumerable natural, social and economic factors. Despite these differences, all allocation
decisions address the fundamental question of how to distribute a limited renewable resource
among user groups. Allocation decisions introduce new challenges as well as opportunities.
The parallel thematic sessions on May 27 and on May 28 presented the unique opportunity
for participants to focus and interact on a set of specific issues identified as priorities for social
funds. Initiated by session leaders, who drew upon their experiences managing social funds,
the sessions addressed the key issues with the assistance of professional facilitators from the
Learning and Leadership Center. The presence of resource persons drawn from the World
Bank staff active in project design and supervision contributed to the quality of the discus-
This research concerns pre-positioning knowledge to address development communication
strategies, which in turn are important for addressing the UN Millennium Development
It is difficult to predict the social impact of new technology. The development community
has to run to keep up with the changes in Information and Communication Technologies
(ICTs), and to determine the opportunities and dangers to the poor of new technology.
This research was commissioned as an opportunity for “future thinking”.
The emergence of the WWW as the main source of distributing content opened the floodgates of information. The sheer volume and diversity of this content necessitate an approach that will reinvent the way it is analysed. The quantitative route to processing information which relies on content management tools provides structural analysis. The challenge we address is to evolve from the process of streamlining data to a level of understanding that assigns value to content.
The early recognition of mental health problems in general populations has received considerable
attention. One can utilize the results of the numerous published population studies for the early
recognition and identification of psychological distress in pregnant women. Two of the "general
screening instruments" that have been most frequently utilized in the last 20 years are the General
Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (105) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) (106).
This study focuses on how teachers are being prepared through the Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE) at three different universities. Documentary and oral sources, a small survey, focus groups and interviews, provide the basis for an analysis of the context and history of each institution: the profile of staff and students in teacher-education courses; and the ways in which issues of diversity are addressed. A well-grounded set of recommendations provides direction for the road ahead.
his report is part of the RAND Corporation monograph report series. The monograph/report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1993 to 2003. RAND monograph/reports presented major research findings that addressed the challenges facing the public and private sectors. They included executive summaries, technical documentation, and synthesis pieces.
solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from RAND.
This book serves as a tool to help patients and their families deal
rationally with the perplexing and often irrational world of health
care. It covers the topics and addresses the challenges that experts in
a variety of health care ﬁelds believe are the most vital to meeting
the challenges of decision making when people feel most vulnera-
In this paper, we address the task of mapping high-level instructions to sequences of commands in an external environment. Processing these instructions is challenging—they posit goals to be achieved without specifying the steps required to complete them. We describe a method that ﬁlls in missing information using an automatically derived environment model that encodes states, transitions, and commands that cause these transitions to happen.
~V~IKEis an automatic commentary system that generates a commentary of a simulated soccer game in English, French, or Japanese. One of the major technical challenges involved in live sports commentary is the reactive selection of content to describe complex, rapidly unfolding situation. To address this challenge, MIKE employs importance scores that intuitively capture the amount of information communicated to the audience.
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.This product is part of the RAND Corporation monograph series. RAND monographs present major research ﬁndings that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors.
.This product is part of the RAND Corporation monograph series. RAND monographs present major research findings that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND monographs undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.