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Our primary motivation for improving the health of women is our concern with their well-being. But the health of
women and adolescent girls is intimately linked to the health of their own children and future generations. Because
of their roles in child-rearing, such as providing and seeking care, and managing water and nutrition, women play a
crucial role in providing access to health services and health-related knowledge for their families and communities.
heir indicators of low female autonomy include relatively
large age differences between husbands and wives, relatively greater breaks between a woman’s natal
and affinal homes on marriage, and relatively large gender gaps in educational indicators, as well as
strong indicators of son preference.
Much other research confirms their general conclusions.
sự khác biệt trong hành vi vấn đề thường xuyên được quan sát thấy. Girls, ví dụ, ít thường xuyên tham gia vào các hành vi vấn đề hơn là nam và có khả năng chấm dứt sự tham gia của họ vào các hành vi như vậy sớm hơn là nam (Ensminger, năm 1990; Petersen, Richmond, và Leffert, 1993).
More than half a million women and girls are held in prisons throughout the world, either as
remand or sentenced prisoners. In Europe, about 100 000 women and girls are in prison
(United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2008). Women constitute a very small
proportion of the general prison population worldwide, usually between 2% and 9% of a
country’s prison population. Only 12 prison systems worldwide report a higher percentage
than that. The median level in Europe is 4.4%.
The Interagency List of Essential Medical Devices for Reproductive Health was developed by
WHO in collaboration with UNICEF and UNFPA and major international and
nongovernmental organizations active in the field of reproductive health. In 2004 and 2005,
several interagency meetings were held to discuss the discrepancy medical devices existing
among the various lists.
This should be a puzzle. Much of the rationale for development economics as a
specialization is the thought that poor countries suffer particularly frominstitutional failures.But
institutional failures in greatmeasuremanifest themselves as externalities. To ignore population
growth and ecological constraints in the study of poor countries would be to suppose that
demographic decisions and resource-use there give rise to no externalities of significance, and
that externalities arising from institutional failure have a negligible effect on resource-use and
Sexual and reproductive rights apply to all individuals regardless of HIV status. Yet more
often than not, the rights of HIV-positive women and adolescent girls are not recognized or
given priority. Gender inequality and some social and cultural practices often tightly restrict
and sometimes control the decisions that women and girls can make regarding their sexual
and reproductive choices.
Attaining and preserving the rights of HIV-positive women and adolescent girls will help en-
sure that SRH services are of the appropriate range and quality and that they are accessible
to all who need them.
The National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM)
initiated reproductive health education in schools in 2003, with
support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Egyp-
tian Family Health Society. Initially, the project was called “The
Reproductive Health Component for Support of Egyptian Girls.”
The name later changed to the “Adolescents’ Health Program”
at the request of the local communities. Originally a one-year
initiative, it was extended until the end of 2012 due to its positive
impact and community acceptance.
Any attempt to improve the efficiency of AI has to be based on an understanding of
the most important causes for failure under each specific production system. The traditional
methods used for this rely on accurate recording and analysis of reproductive events such as
oestrus, services, pregnancies and calvings. However, records are rarely kept by smallholders
and, even when available, do not allow an assessment of the importance of factors such as
efficiency and precision of oestrus detection by the farmers or incorrect timing of
One key element, also specified in Criterion 2.6, is that each set of competencies should be
made available to school or program constituents, especially students. The site visit team
will expect to see instructional objectives, programmatic competencies (for all MPH
students), concentration competencies and course learning objectives in the self-study
document and/or in an on-site resource file, but also in more public venues such as the
website, student handbook, recruitment materials and course syllabi.
Monitoring for coverage, effectiveness, impact, usage (loss and wastage), and safety of
vaccines should be planned and use existing systems as much as possible. Collection of
coverage data can be challenging, and should include disaggregated data by dose and age
at delivery site. Nominal registries may be useful for collecting coverage information and
ensuring proper follow-up, but may require unique national identifiers. With appropriate
technical support, vaccine impact evaluations may be done using HPV prevalence studies
in certain settings.
The government aims for 100% enrollment as part of the MDG targets for 2015, with
girls' enrollment share being 50%. Various obstacles to achieving this goal exist, such as
lack of school facilities, in particular girls' schools in rural areas. The problem is even
greater for girls' secondary schools, which are very few and scattered. Insecurity,
combined with distance and lack of transport, prevents especially girls from accessing
During the transition to adulthood, lack of knowledge and awareness about reproductive organs,
physiological changes, or sexuality can promote psychosocial stress. This is particularly so for girls, who
also face gender discrimination. Adolescent girls and boys experience psychosocial stress. A study
conducted by the State Education Resource Centre (SERC) in Uttar Pradesh established that gender
equality was unknown and adolescent girls felt that they were a burden on their families and had poorer
self-image while their counterparts felt superior.
Adolescent fertility rates are high in many Pacific countries, with little decline
in the past decade. For example, between 8-26% of girls aged 15-19 who are
married or in civil unions have already started childbearing, and 17 and 62%
of recent births were unplanned. This reflects that adolescent pregnancy in
the Pacific often occurs outside of marriage and is commonly unintended.