Adolescent sexual

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  • In Africa, as in many parts of the world, adolescent reproductive health is a controversial issue for policy makers and programme planners. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to HIV and AIDS and to a host of other problems such as sexually transmitted infection, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortions, sexual abuse, female genital mutilation and unsafe circumcision. Yet many countries don’t have adolescent health policies and much remains to be done to ensure that adolescents can access appropriate sexual and reproductive health services....

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  • An expert panel was convened, consisting of individuals with expertise in the areas of media use and its measurement, adolescent sexual health, and media effects on sexual health. Panelists were also expert in the use of new media in sexual health interventions. One goal was to identify gaps and set priorities for

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  • Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Malawi: Results from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents was written by Alister Munthali, the Cen- tre for Social Research, Zomba, Malawi; Eliya M. Zulu and Nyovani Madise, the African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya; Ann M. Moore, the Guttmacher Institute, New York, USA; Sidon Konyani, the Centre for Social Research, Zomba, Malawi, James Kaphuka, the National Statis- tical Office, Zomba, Malawi; and Dixie Maluwa- Banda, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Zomba, Malawi.

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  • Funders and lawmakers are increasingly requiring that adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention programs be based on effective prevention strategies to be considered for funding. Moreover, for funding to continue, programs are now generally expected to document their own effectiveness in preventing adolescent pregnancy or STI/HIV or in changing the risky sexual behaviors antecedent to these problems. Behavioral change, as opposed to knowledge or attitudinal change alone, is the standard criterion of effectiveness....

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  • Sexual risk behavior among U.S. adolescents is a major public health concern, with young people accounting for a disproportionate number of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Although a great deal of research attention has been devoted to understanding what puts adolescents at risk for these

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  • as mentioned, sexual and reproductive health is a unique sub-sector, due to its close association with important and sensitive socio-cultural factors and gender roles which define and prescribe appropriate opportunities and avenues of action. the field is uniquely sensitive and therefore must involve explicit exploration across all areas of activity of some critical cross cutting issues – among them gender, adolescent health, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDs.

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  • STD care and management begin with risk assessment and proceed to clinical assessment, diagnostic testing or screening, treatment, and prevention. Indeed, the routine care of any patient begins with risk assessment (e.g., for risk of heart disease, cancer). STD/HIV risk assessment is important in primary care, urgent care, and emergency care settings as well as in specialty clinics providing adolescent, prenatal, and family planning services.

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  • In this chapter the following common gyneco- logical problems of children and adolescents will be described: fusion of the labia, vulvovaginitis, lichen sclerosus, condylomata acuminata, sexual abuse, prepubertal bleeding, abnormal bleeding after menarche, trauma and genital tumors.

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  • As a Pacific nation, New Zealand’s close geographic proximity and strong economic and cultural ties with other Pacific countries further underscores the importance of supporting positive change in this region. The New Zealand Aid Programme focuses on areas and activities where New Zealand’s development assistance can have the most positive impact, and over half of New Zealand’s total aid goes to this region. One of the stated health priorities of the New Zealand Aid Programme is sexual and reproductive health.

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  • Almost all of the 250 MSM surveyed knew that HIV/AIDS could be contracted through sexual intercourse and 80 percent cited condoms as a way to prevent the disease, although actual use does not reflect knowledge. Many respondents reported having experienced STI-related symptoms. For example, 42 percent had had burning or penile discharge and 22 percent reported having had lesions or pustules on their anus (Table 2).

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  • Our children have many complex challenges as they go through a myriad of developmental phases from birth and infancy (ab incunabulis) to adulthood. Parents often turn to their primary care clinician when behavioral problems arise and they also expect that their family doctor will identify the problems parents cannot yet comprehend. Indeed, many pediatric patients in these offices have either nonmedical (ie, behavioral) dilemmas or have medical problems complicated by behavioral influences [2,3].

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  • Contraceptive use accounts for a substantial portion of the variation in observed fertility rates (others include age of marriage, abortion rates, post- partum amenorrhea and abstinence, and occurrence of marital separations). Although there have been dramatic increases in the use of family planning services, unmet need for family planning remains very high in low-prevalence regions.

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  • Increasing evidence suggests that serious mental illness is neurodevelopmental and the onset of pre-psychotic symptoms occurs in adolescence, at a time when the cerebral cortex is still developing. As with many complex disorders (e.g. hypertension, epilepsy, and diabetes), there appear to be many aetiological pathways that might lead to the final mixture of behavioral signs and symptoms we label ‘schizophrenia’.

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  • Adolescents who become pregnant prior to completion of their education typically face expulsion from school, and those who give birth often are not readmitted. In many African societies for example, once a young woman has given birth she is regarded as an adult, a role that is generally perceived as incompatible with continued formal educa- tion. In the event that a young woman is forced to abandon her education due to early pregnancy, she likely faces curtailment of her social, intellectual and economic develop- ment.

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  • Providers should be aware of the relationship between infections that may be already present and the risk of iatrogenic infection. For example, clients should be checked for endogenous or sexually transmitted infections before insertions of the IUD to avoid bacteria being pushed into the uterus. Alternatively, women selecting the IUD should be encouraged to choose a different form of contraception if they consider themselves at risk of exposure to an STI.

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  • The study provides information on key reproductive and sexual health indicators in young women and men age 15-24 in 38 developing countries. The data come from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS) conducted between 2001 and 2005. Indicators are selected for the following key areas: background characteristics; adolescent pregnancy; contraception; sexual activity; and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Additional analysis examines the association of various individual and household characteristics with the key indicators.

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  • A multi-country operations research study investigating the combined effectiveness of a set of interventions designed to improve adolescent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, attitude and practices was launched in 1999. This study was conducted concurrently in Bangladesh, Kenya, Mexico and Senegal. The principal elements of the project were established through a consultative process that included several of the principal agencies, donors, research organizations and individuals working in the field of adolescent health care internationally.

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  • Multiple individual characteristics are associated with positive reproductive health behaviors. Demographic characteristics, including gender, race/ethnicity, and age are all important, with males more likely than females to initiate sexual intercourse at an early age and to exhibit greater levels of sexual activity; racial and ethnic minorities more likely to engage in behaviors related to early pregnancy, childbearing and STIs, and older teens more likely be sexually experienced but also more likely to use contraception (Abma & Sonenstein, 2001; Miller, Norton et al.

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  • The neighborhoods and communities that adolescents live in may also influence their reproductive health behaviors. Numerous studies show that adolescents living in disadvantaged communities with high poverty rates and low levels of socioeconomic status have a greater risk of early sexual initiation and a greater risk of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing (Brewster, Billy, & Grady, 1993; Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985; Sucoff & Upchurch, 1998). Alternately, living in a community with higher socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced risk of risky sexual activity.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "John Murtagh's general practice" presentation of content: Chronic disorders, continuing management, male health, sexual health, child and adolescent health, problems of the skin, women’s health, accident and emergency medicine, health of specific groups.

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