Every patient knows to seek medical help when his or her aches and pains become
too much to bear, but how does the healthcare provider determine what is wrong and
what to do to restore the patient to good health? The answer depends on the patient’s
signs and symptoms and the results from medical tests. In this book you will learn
to identify these signs and symptoms, interpret the medical test results, and perform
the nursing interventions that will assist in solving or alleviating the patient’s medical
Relatively healthy older people, particularly those in the 60 to 70 age range, are likely to need services
similar to other adult health center populations. They may face challenges similar to their younger
counterparts; language barriers, limited health literacy, or cultural factors may impact health care access.
Yet for the older-old, these familiar challenges are compounded by additional barriers to optimal care and
quality of life. The disabled of any age often need supportive services to remain as healthy as possible and
in the community.
The past century has witnessed a dramatic increase in both life expectancy
and the number of older adults. This demographic trend will be
greatly accelerated in the next 10 years, as the first wave of baby boomers
reaches retirement age. This trend is seen even more strongly among the
oldest-old. For example, the 85+ population increased by 38% in the
1990s, from 3.1 million in 1990 to 4.2 million in 2000 (Hetzel & Smith,
Adolescents who become pregnant prior to
completion of their education typically face
expulsion from school, and those who give
birth often are not readmitted. In many African
societies for example, once a young woman
has given birth she is regarded as an adult, a
role that is generally perceived as
incompatible with continued formal educa-
tion. In the event that a young woman is
forced to abandon her education due to early
pregnancy, she likely faces curtailment of her
social, intellectual and economic develop-
Being able to look at clients and families with
a “genetic eye” has become critical for all nurses.
Advances from genetic and genomic research
have influenced all areas of health care and
cross all periods of the life cycle. Genetic factors are
responsible in some way for both indirect and direct
disease causation; for variation that determines predisposition,
susceptibility, and resistance to disease;
and for response to treatment.
Prevention of Gastrointestinal Illness Diarrhea, the leading cause of illness in travelers (Chap. 122), is usually a short-lived, self-limited condition; however, 40% of affected individuals need to alter their scheduled activities, and another 20% are confined to bed. The most important determinant of risk is the destination. Incidence rates per 2-week stay have been reported to be as low as 8% in industrialized countries and as high as 55% in parts of Africa, Central and South America, and Southeast Asia. Infants and young adults are at particularly high risk.
Immunizations for Travel Immunizations for travel fall into three broad categories: routine (childhood/adult boosters that are necessary regardless of travel), required (immunizations that are mandated by international regulations for entry into certain areas or for border crossings), and recommended (immunizations that are desirable because of travel-related risks). Vaccines commonly given to travelers are listed in Table 117-1.
Gene transfer into many cell types has been successfully used to develop alternative and adjunct approaches to conventional medical treatment. However, effective transfection of postmitotic neurons remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a method for gene transfer into rat primary dorsal root ganglion neurons using sonoporation. Methods: Dissociated cells from adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells were sonicated for 1-8 s at 2.5-10 W to determine the optimal ultrasound duration and power for gene transfection and cell survival.
Health literacy is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” It represents a constellation of skills necessary for people to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information. These skills include the ability to interpret documents, read and write prose (print literacy), use quantitative information (numeracy), and speak and listen effectively (oral literacy).
This report is based on research conducted by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Rockville, MD (Contract No. 290-02-0018). The findings and conclusions in this document are those of the author(s), who are responsible for its content, and do not necessarily represent the views of AHRQ. No statement in this report should be construed as an official position of AHRQ or of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Population groups that are potentially more vulnerable than others
to indoor air pollution are children, pregnant women, elderly people,
and people suffering from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases.
Depending on their age, children may be more vulnerable than adults
to certain toxic substances, like lead and tobacco smoke. Even at
low levels, air pollutants may disrupt the development of their lungs,
cause cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, and make
Population trends affect the course of and prospects for poverty reduction.
Diverse and changing population dynamics have had dramatic impacts in sev-
eral world regions. Sub-Saharan Africa remains in a poverty trap where demo-
graphic factors – high fertility, high infant and child mortality, and excess
adult mortality (including that due to HIV/AIDS) – play significant roles.
Eastern Asia, on the other hand, has seen dramatic declines in the number
of persons living in income poverty.
Mounting evidence suggests that antecedents of adult mental disorders can be detected in children and adolescents.
The development of policies and programmes for child and adolescent mental health have lagged those for adult
mental disorders. The reasons for the lag are many, including widespread lack of knowledge about child development and
childhood mental disorders, relatively weak advocacy, lack of training and in many parts of the world, absent fi nancial and
professional resources for programme development and implementation.
Synthesizing current information about sensory-motor plasticity, Neural Plasticity in Adult Somatic Sensory-Motor Systems provides an up-to-date description of the dynamic processes that occur in somatic sensory-motor cortical circuits or somatic sensory pathways to the cortex due to experience, learning, or damage to the nervous system. The book emphasizes changes in the cortex that are linked to shifts in movement or behavior and demonstrates the potential for direct brain-based interventions to improve the quality of life for people with sensory-motor disabilities....
Poor Families in America’sHealth Care Crisis examines the implications
of the fragmented and two-tiered health insurance system in the United
States for the health care access of low-income families. For a large
fraction of Americans, their jobs do not provide health insurance or
other beneﬁts, and although government programs are available for
children, adults without private health care coverage have few options.
A silent killer maneuvers just below the surface of almost all the
health issues that will lead to death and disease in the 21st century.
The U.S. population faces well-recognized health risks, including
chronic diseases, environmental degradation, and natural and manmade
disasters, but the silent killer is less diagnosed and remains
essentially untreated. The silent killer is low health literacy: the
reality that almost half of adults in the United States, over 90 million
people, struggle to find, understand, and correctly use health
The physical, social and intellectual development of
children from conception to the end of adolescence
requires an environment that is both protected and
protective of their health. A growing number of dis-
eases in children are linked to unsafe environments.
Prenatal and early life exposures, including diet, are
associated with child health and human development
and predispose to late adult effects. Thus, the INMA
project is based on three main rationales.
First, exposure to environmental pollutants through
air, water and food is worldwide.
A growing empirical literature examines the relationship between family income and child
health. An article by Case, Lubotsky and Paxson (2002) (CLP) shows that, in the United States,
the socioeconomic gradient in adult health has its origins in childhood. Using data from 1986 to
1994, they find that poor children are reported by their parents to be in worse health than wealthy
children, and this gradient becomes larger as children grow older. These results suggest that the
relationship between income and health that is observed in adulthood has its roots in childhood.
The health care worker should explain that anyone can get TB. TB spreads when
an infected person coughs or sneezes, spraying TB germs into the air. Others may
breathe in these germs and become infected.
Patients must also understand the importance of making sure all family members
exposed to the disease (contacts) who have symptoms of TB go to the closest health
care facility for screening of TB. In particular, children under age 5 should be
screened, because they are at risk of developing severe forms of the disease.