The methods for human identity authentication based on biometrics â€“ the physiological and behavioural characteristics of a person have been evolving continuously and seen significant improvement in performance and robustness over the last few years. However, most of the systems reported perform well in controlled operating scenarios, and their performance deteriorates significantly under real world operating conditions, and far from satisfactory in terms of robustness and accuracy, vulnerability to fraud and forgery, and use of acceptable and appropriate authentication protocols. ...
Data is increasingly generated by instruments that monitor the
environment – telescopes looking at the heavens, DNA sequenc-
ers decoding molecules, bar-code readers watching passing
freight-cars, patient monitors watching the life-signs of a person
in the emergency room, cell-phone and credit-card systems look-
ing for fraud, RFID scanners watching products flow through the
supply chain, and smart-dust sensing its environment.
In each of these cases, one wants to compare...
All industrial, commercial and financial combinations are governed by chance: speculation thus involves some level of risk. The reward from the transaction is therefore two-fold: for the newly created utility there is the reward for a service and a speculative gain for the risk assumed. This second part, the jobbery, is the object of abuse: sought for its own sake, irrespective of any service supplied, this remuneration of risk can be classified as a game or even as a fraud. Speculation is thus the art of becoming rich “without working, capital, trade or genius.
The risk of computer crime has become a global issue affecting almost all countries. Salifu (2008) argues that the Internet is a "double-edged sword" providing many opportunities for individuals and organizations to develop and prosper, but at the same time has brought with it new opportunities to commit crime. For example, Nigeria-related financial crime is extensive and 122 out of 138 countries at an Interpol meeting complained about Nigerian involvement in financial fraud in their countries.
We are living in interesting times. We are coming out of a recession that
was a once-in-a-generation event; it caused high unemployment, a large
number of home foreclosures, and substantial losses in the stock market and in
retirement savings plans. In addition, there have been unprecedented financial
frauds and natural disasters, causing personal and financial losses to many
individuals. At the same time, a new administration has worked to ease some
of the pain for taxpayers while advancing certain reforms, such as health care
The recommendations are based on four guiding
First, PSPs should perform specifi c assessments
of the risks associated with providing internet
payment services, which should be regularly
updated in line with the evolution of internet
security threats and fraud. Some risks in this
area have been identifi ed in the past, for example
by the Bank for International Settlements in
2003 6 or the Federal Financial Institutions
Examination Council in 2005 and 2011.