This uncommon type of skin cancer develops from neuroendocrine cells (hormone-making
cells that resemble nerve cells in some ways) in the skin. They are most often found on the
head, neck, and arms but can start anywhere.
These cancers are thought to be caused in part by sun exposure and in part by Merkel cell
polyomavirus (MCV). About 8 out of 10 Merkel cell carcinomas are thought to be related to
MCV infection. MCV is a common virus. Many people are infected with MCV, but it usually
causes no symptoms. In a small portion of people with this infection,...
Currently, adult cells seem to have certain
advantages regarding rapid clinical translation. Most biomaterials used in Tissue
Engineering are based on acellular matrices or polyglycolic acid. Both materials
must provide tissue support until the cells produce their own extracellular matrix.
Ideally, they degrade thereafter without any toxic byproducts. Over the last years
we started to understand the influence of the biomechanical environment allowing
these cell-biomaterial composites to unfold their full functional potential.
Tham khảo sách 'committee on toxicity of chemicals in food, consumer products and the environment - subgroup report on the lowermoor water pollution incident', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
The principal focus of American Independent Cinema is on the particular
versions of independent cinema that came to prominence from the
mid 1980s with the appearance of milestone ﬁlms such as Stranger Than
Paradise (Jim Jarmusch, 1984), sex, lies, and videotape (Steven Soderbergh,
1989) and Clerks (Kevin Smith, 1994).
Intermediate-risk patients are those
with any of the following criteria: microscopic tumour invasion into the perithyroidal
tissues at initial surgery, cervical lymph node metastases or 131I uptake outside the thyroid
bed on the initial post-treatment scan, or tumour with aggressive histology or vascular
invasion. Finally, high-risk patients have macroscopic tumour invasion, incomplete tumour
resection, distant metastases or elevated thyroglobulin out of proportion to what is seen on
the post-treatment scan (Cooper et al., 2009).
Changes in the pattern of DNA methylation are commonly seen in human tumors.
Both genome wide hypomethylation (insufficient methylation) and region-specific
hypermethylation (excessive methylation) have been suggested to play a role in
carcinogenesis2. A common cause of the loss of tumor-suppressor miRNAs in cancer is
the silencing of primary transcripts by CpG island promoter by hypermethylation3.
Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–speciﬁc
interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least
resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys-
temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health
inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel-
oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different
diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.
The average number of living
children is lower in Phnom Penh than in the five provinces. This apparently is the result of lower past
fertility levels of current Phnom Penh elderly rather than higher losses of children through mortality. In
fact, respondents in Phnom Penh report fewer deaths of their children than do those in the provinces
(results not shown). Older elders average somewhat smaller numbers of surviving children than younger
This system, designed in cooperation with the banking industry, is based on chipcard technology and
corresponds to the electronic cash system above. The only difference is the possibility of offline
authorisation. An authorisation up to a certain limit laid down individually by the issuing bank is stored
on the bank card’s chip. This amount decreases with each payment and, as long as the remaining
amount is sufficient, transactions are authorised offline. In order to pay, the customers must enter their
PIN, which is validated on the chip.
Services to implementing agencies. The limited capacity of
implementing agencies to mainstream gender-responsive approach-
es sometimes constrains the success of Bank projects and programs.
The Bank itself has a limited capacity to provide technical assistance
to implementing agencies, but one region has successfully estab-
lished technical service facilities that rely on part-time consultants to
advise these agencies on integrating gender-responsive approaches
into project implementation.
"Marketing" is defined as the aggregate of functions involved in transferring title and in moving
goods from producer to consumer. Agricultural marketing2
includes such processes as
assembling the raw commodities, grading, packaging, transportation, preparation for use,
storage, shifting and sharing risks, change in ownership, pricing and exchange, wholesaling and
One of the first steps in agricultural marketing is assembling the raw commodities.
The contributors to the conference comprised a mixture of art historians,
curators, museum studies lecturers, anthropologists, archaeologists and
artists, and the conference timetable positioned established academics
alongside scholars at an earlier stage in their research and writing careers.
Traditionally, public transportation passenger cost savings were often the primary
factors considered as the benefits of public transportation projects. This mindset
has changed significantly and now it is widely accepted that public transportation
investment can also help reduce roadway traffic congestion, with broader benefits
for commercial truck deliveries, employer labor market access and on other
aspects of business productivity.
A younger investor, less concerned about these issues, may not be sat-
isﬁed with the lower expected return that inﬂation hedging implies.
It follows from a model with additional hedge portfolios that an OE
portfolio for performance evaluation should have the same exposures
as the managed portfolio to be evaluated, not just with respect to
the overall market, but also with respect to the other relevant risk
A related asset pricing model is the Arbitrage Pricing model of
Ross (APT, 1976), which allows for several risk factors to determine
assets’ expected returns.
A representative random systematic sampling of clusters from 183 elderly people aged 65 and over was selected from the old age groups of Joaçaba, SC. Previous to the commencement of the research, workshops with the participants were conducted in order to discuss the method of performance of the interviews12. A pilot test was done to calibrate the 5 surveyors in relation to the observation of the clinical condition examined, and the (kappa) agreement test was used for these measurements until an adequate value was obtained.
Although particle levels have declined substantially since the 1970s, particle pollution
has shown no discernible trend over the last decade. The Air NEPM 1-day standard for
PM10 is 50 µg/m3
and is not to be exceeded more than five times a year at any one site.
The number of allowed exceedences takes into account bushfires and similar natural
events and necessary bushfire hazard reduction burning. In 2001, exceedences
occurred on 8 days in Sydney and 5 days in both the Lower Hunter and the Illawarra.
We too believe that the global imbalances and the financial crisis are intimately
connected, but we take a more nuanced stance on the nature of the connections.
view, both originated primarily in economic policies followed in a number of countries in
the 2000s (including the United States) and in distortions that influenced the transmission
of these policies through U.S. and ultimately through global financial markets.
Over the past three decades, considerable effort has been devoted to assessing the importance
of spatial mismatch in determining racial and ethnic differences in employment outcomes. The
hypothesis posits that persistent racial housing segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas coupled with
the spatial decentralization of employment have left black and, to a lesser extent, Latino workers
physically isolated from ever-important suburban employment centers.
Early studies of market efficiency (Fama 1965, 1970 and 1991) suggests that at any given time, security prices fully
reflect all available information. Thus, no investor has an advantage in predicting a return on a stock price because
no one has access to information not already available to everyone else, therefore only unanticipated information can
push the prices. By the definition of Fama (1991) the efficiency of a market can be classified by the type of
information reflected by the prices.
Monitoring for coverage, effectiveness, impact, usage (loss and wastage), and safety of
vaccines should be planned and use existing systems as much as possible. Collection of
coverage data can be challenging, and should include disaggregated data by dose and age
at delivery site. Nominal registries may be useful for collecting coverage information and
ensuring proper follow-up, but may require unique national identifiers. With appropriate
technical support, vaccine impact evaluations may be done using HPV prevalence studies
in certain settings.