This report is being published at a time of great opportunity in health care. Legislation passed
in March 2010 will provide insurance coverage for 32 million more Americans. The implications
of this new demand on the nation’s health care system are significant. How can the system
accommodate the increased demand while improving the quality of health care services provided
to the American public?
Nursing represents the largest sector of the health professions, with more than 3 million
registered nurses in the United States.
A silent killer maneuvers just below the surface of almost all the
health issues that will lead to death and disease in the 21st century.
The U.S. population faces well-recognized health risks, including
chronic diseases, environmental degradation, and natural and manmade
disasters, but the silent killer is less diagnosed and remains
essentially untreated. The silent killer is low health literacy: the
reality that almost half of adults in the United States, over 90 million
people, struggle to find, understand, and correctly use health
The world today is changing at a tremendous speed; advances in technology
and communication and changes in the political, economic, demographic
and social changes, all touch our lives. These changes also impact on health
care provision, and the delivery of health services. The aim of this book is to
empower would – be leaders of nursing and allied health professions to be
effective. Leadership in health care is a high priority in the UK and, at the
time of writing, is top of the list for the National Health Service Federation.
The first report of a quantitative risk evaluation applied to health goes back to Laplace, in the
late eighteenth century, which calculated the probability of death among people with and
without vaccination for smallpox. With Pasteur's studies in the late nineteenth century, it was
possible to use the tools of statistics to evaluate the factors related to communicable diseases,
giving birth to the concept of epidemiological risk (Covello; Munpower, 1985, Czeresnia, 2004).
There was a need to bring
this information together in a single volume, as much of the key recent developments
have been dispersed throughout the biomedical literature, largely in specialized
journals. Since, as in the past, important developments in immunosuppressive
therapy in one branch of medicine (i.e. transplantation) are likely to benefit another
The global environment is changing rapidly, partly in response to economic
globalization. These global changes are clearly evident at the local level, even in
the quality of air that people breath. In some high income countries air quality
has been improving, due to a combination of de-industrialization, improved
technologies and environmental regulation. However, advances in the science of
epidemiology suggest that even air that would until recently have been
considered ‘clean’ may contain pollutants that are hazardous to people’s health.
Most health care spending is for care provided by hospitals and physicians.
Health care spending encompasses a wide variety of health-related goods and
services, from hospital care and prescription drugs to dental services and medical
equipment purchases. Figure 7 illustrates spending on health by type of expense in
2010. Spending on hospital care and physician services ($1,329.5 billion combined)
makes up just over one-half of health care expenditures (51%). While spending on
prescription drugs ($259.
The creative and innovative ethic of American medicine is legend and
has contributed fundamentally to the breadth, depth, and pace of advances
in our capacity for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury. Indeed,
the number of new pharmaceuticals, biologics, medical devices, and healthcare
services introduced into American healthcare settings and marketplaces
substantially exceeds the capacity to know the circumstances under
which a particular intervention is best applied.
Women’s health is inextricably linked to the context in
which they live their lives. Only within the past few
decades have researchers and clinicians acknowledged
the importance of women’s lived experiences for their
well-being. The feminist movement of the 1960s and
1970s prompted critical analysis of women’s health and
its relationship to society, and of women’s health care
Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–speciﬁc
interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least
resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys-
temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health
inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel-
oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different
diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.
The greatest limitation of traditional epidemiological indicators is their inability to reflect the “capacity of an individual to perform tasks and activities”13. Self-perceived measures convey more information about the way a certain disease is affecting the individual’s daily routine and the population in general than the measurements collected from a clinical environment5.
Clinical indicators are important for the assessment of oral health and treatment needs; nevertheless, their limitations must be considered11.
This book is about the promises and failures of community mental health. It is also about
hope and recovery. During the past 50 years, the treatment of persons with serious mental
illness has undergone a radical transformation. Significant advances in research and the
influence of a growing consumer advocacy movement are forcefully shaping a brave new
world in community mental health. At the same time, tremendous suffering persists for
those afflicted by serious mental illness.
Tham khảo sách 'recent advances in the biology, therapy and management of melanoma edited by lester m. davids', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
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The impact of perinatal mental health problems on infants has been studied in HIC, mostly in
terms of neuro-psycho-behavioural variables, which are likely to apply in LMICs as well. Infants
of depressed mothers show dysregulations affecting their behavior and physiology, thought to be
derived from a prenatal exposure to a biochemical imbalance in their mothers (48, 70). Newborns
of depressed mothers also have neurotransmitter imbalances (e.g., higher cortisol and lower
dopamine and serotonin levels), are described as physiologically less mature (e.g.
Professional ethics is now acknowledged as a field of study in its own
right. Much of its recent development has resulted from rethinking
traditional medical ethics in the light of new moral problems arising
out of advances in medical science and technology. Applied
philosophers, ethicists and lawyers have devoted considerable energy
to exploring the dilemmas emerging from modern health care practices
and their effects on the practitioner-relationship.