When a new veterinary medicinal product is
launched into widespread use, adverse drug reactions
may become apparent. These may be seen in
the treated animal patients, in exposed users or as
adverse effects on the environment. Additionally,
they may manifest as excess residues of the drug
in food of animal origin. As a consequence, legislation
and regulatory approaches have developed
across the globe to address these issues and to
ensure that the continued safety of these products
can be monitored and, where necessary,
that regulatory actions can be pursued to assuage
Herbicides are much more than just weed killers. They may exhibit beneficial or adverse effects on other organisms. Given their toxicological, environmental but also agricultural relevance, herbicides are an interesting field of activity not only for scientists working in the field of agriculture. It seems that the investigation of herbicide-induced effects on weeds, crop plants, ecosystems, microorganisms, and higher organism requires a multidisciplinary approach. Some important aspects regarding the multisided impacts of herbicides on the living world are highlighted in this book.
Though alternative methods of controlling insects, rodents,
insect pests, pathogens, microbes and weeds have been developed, pesticides could
not be replaced. The prosperous role of pesticides in the management of insect pests
and diseases is indisputable. However, its nature of non selective toxicity towards
other organisms and deposition in the environment warrants the legislation of usage.
Pesticide use raises a number of environmental concerns.
Car-sharing can be seen as an effective measure for reducing the burden of automobile traffic
on the environment. The automobiles belonging to Swedish car-sharing organizations are
often newer and have more satisfactory environmental and safety characteristics than Swedish
cars in general. Studies have also shown that a member of an average car-sharing scheme
drives only about two-thirds as much as earlier and that a shared car, through being used more
effectively, takes the place of some five privately owned cars and as many parking spaces.
Environmental statements should consider the direct and cumulative impacts of proposed offshoreinstallations,both within the turbine array and on the wider seabed environment.This should include the construction of turbines and meteorological mastsand their foundations;scour protection;burial andarmouring of cables on the site and connection to the shore;and potential hydrological or sedimenttransport effects.The impact assessment of associatedconstruction works should include onshore,inter-tidaland offshore works,as sensitive archaeological sitesmay occur in all these locations.
If there have been events of human exposure to the mixture, such as a prior oil spill, worker health
studies can provide the greatest amount of insight regarding future spills. These studies, such as the one
conducted after the Prestige oil spill off the coast of Spain1
, comprehensively examine adverse health
effects of oil rather than a single constituent chemical.
We also believe that high quality design should play akey role in minimising any adverse effects of projects,whether this is directed at the disposition of windturbines and energy crops in the landscape or thepositioning of photo-voltaic cells on historic buildings.Fundamental to achieving high quality design will be asound understanding of the character and importanceof the historic asset involved,whether at the scale ofindividual buildings and sites or more extensive historicareas and landscapes.
Construction activities have significant potential to
have adverse environmental impacts. During this
phase, often a large transient workforce is employed,
workforce numbers tend to peak and material and
equipment movements tend to be large. Impacts are
typically related to land disturbance caused by earth-
works, air emissions from dust, noise from equipment
and construction activities and heavy volumes of traf-
fic on access roads.
In many cases, specialized third party companies and
consultants conduct mine construction activities.
This book focuses primarily on speech recognition and the related tasks such as speech enhancement and modeling. This book comprises 3 sections and thirteen chapters written by eminent researchers from USA, Brazil, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Ireland, Taiwan, Mexico, Slovakia and India. Section 1 on speech recognition consists of seven chapters. Sections 2 and 3 on speech enhancement and speech modeling have three chapters each respectively to supplement section 1.
In general terms, saving banks as the rest of the Spanish banking sector, faced the first
phases of the financial crisis, originated in August 2007, with outstanding resilience due to
their so called “traditional” banking model based mainly on retail banking, the high quality of
the Bank of Spain prudential supervision and a privileged position in terms of efficiency,
profitability, and level of provisions and capital.
Critical business systems and their associated technologies are typically held to performance
benchmarks. In the security space, benchmarks of speed, capacity and accuracy are common
for encryption, packet inspection, assessment, alerting and other critical protection technolo-
gies. But how do you set benchmarks for a tool based on collection, normalization and corre-
lation of security events from multiple logging devices? And how do you apply these bench-
marks to today’s diverse network environments? ...
These factors have had the effect of slowing or declining international student enrolments,
with prospects of worse to come. The effects of policy‐induced changes to student visas and
skilled migration, the most important of which came into effect only quite recently, are
likely to be only seen in the coming months.
Higher education was the prime initiator of the international student export success and
remains the most economically significant part of the whole sector.
Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the MDGs. Section
2 provides an overview of the state of SRH over time and across regions, high-
lighting areas and groups – both within and between countries – that have had
particularly adverse SRH outcomes. It also dissects why attention to access to
SRH services is ‘falling short’. Section 3 shows how universal access to sexual
and reproductive health and rights affects each of the MDGs.
Natural disasters are becoming more frequent worldwide and there is growing concern that they may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small to moderate disasters, which are
Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen
organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and
various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of
point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on
aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various
species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological
The use of pesticides in the United States has increased dramatically during the last
several decades. Hundreds of different chemicals have been developed for use in agricultural
and non-agricultural settings. Concerns about the potential adverse effects of pesticides on the
environment and human health have spurred an enormous amount of research into their
environmental behavior and fate. Much of this concern has focused on the potential for
contamination of the hydrologic system, including surface waters.
Carmago et al. (1992) found that the rivers nearer industrial discharge point have adverse
impact to the environment as well as to macrobenthic communities. Toxic contaminants
from surface runoff, sewage discharges and industrial discharge have caused negative
impacts towards the freshwater macrobenthic communities. The presence of substance
chemical such as ammonia, chlorine, cyanide, metals, PCBs, pesticides and phenols would
caused a decline pattern on the number of species and changes in the species composition.
Unfortunately, the adverse effects of transportation have a greater impact on the natural
and human environment than either spatial proximity or telecommunications. The basic
technology used in transportation causes emissions of pollutants which have been proved, or are
believed, to damage human health and plant life and to upset sensitive ecosystem balances. As a
result of transport’s contribution to local pollution–which, worldwide, is responsible for about 1.
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Impulsive Noise Statistical Models for Impulsive Noise Median Filters Impulsive Noise Removal Using Linear Prediction Models Robust Parameter Estimation Restoration of Archived Gramophone Records Summary
mpulsive noise consists of relatively short duration “on/off” noise pulses, caused by a variety of sources, such as switching noise, adverse channel environments in a communication system, dropouts or surface degradation of audio recordings, clicks from computer keyboards, etc.
TRANSIENT NOISE PULSES
13.1 Transient Noise Waveforms 13.2 Transient Noise Pulse Models 13.3 Detection of Noise Pulses 13.4 Removal of Noise Pulse Distortions
ransient noise pulses differ from the short-duration impulsive noise studied in the previous chapter, in that they have a longer duration and a relatively higher proportion of low-frequency energy content, and usually occur less frequently than impulsive noise. The sources of transient noise pulses are varied, and may be electromagnetic, acoustic or due to physical defects in the recording medium.