Over the past few decades numerous studies have shown an alarming increase in the
concentration of atmospheric particular matter called aerosols resulting from a variety
of human activities, ranging from agricultural to combustion of fossil fuels. Besides
having serious impacts on the health of all living creatures, these particles can affect
planetary radiation budget. Consequences of this change include global temperature
shifts and the altering of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.
The use of fluid microdrops in engineering and experimental science goes back
over a century to the study and use of spray generated aerosols, and the use of
aerosol produced microdrops to confirm the predictions of fluid mechanics, atomic
theory and chemistry. The ability to generate fluid microdrops with a predetermined
size, on demand, with precisely controlled trajectories is a more recent invention
dating back only a few decades. Its primary commercial and industrial use today is
in the field of inkjet image printing....
A sample of 200 consumers was drawn randomly from rural and urban locations in the
two main regions of the Eastern Cape, namely the former Transkei homeland area and the
former Ciskei homeland area. By means of structured questionnaires, the respondents
were interviewed in relation to where they buy their groceries from, the types of foods
they bought, their present and future buying patterns, preferred food products, and their
reasons for choice of particular food products.
So it has to be explored
how much knowledge of organic farming consumers already have, and how they would like to
be more informed. Studies concerning consumer demand for organic food products are still un-
der-developed in the Northern Thai region. Therefore, the present paper aims to understand the
perceptions and attitudes towards organic food products in this region, to collect detailed infor-
mation of the demographic characteristics and to identify the reasons affecting consumers’ be-
havior towards organic food products. ...
How much of a supplemental nutrient to apply should be
determined based on prior experience of the farmer, obser-
vation of plant growth, knowledge of soil characteristics
such as organic matter, cation exchange capacity, phosphorus
and potassium supplying ability, and base saturation, knowl-
edge of crop needs and field history, and understanding of
the nutrient supplying power of the material to be used. An
example of nutrient application rates is provided in Table 2.
Overapplication can cause problems in crop production as
well as in the environment.
The most important trend in biological engineering is the dynamic range of scales at
which biotechnology is now able to integrate with biological processes. An explosion
in micro/nanoscale technology is allowing the manufacture of nanoparticles for drug
delivery into cells, miniaturized implantable microsensors for medical diagnostics, and
micro-engineered robots for on-board tissue repairs. This book aims to provide an upto-
date overview of the recent developments in biological engineering from diverse
aspects and various applications in clinical and experimental research....
After its emission or secondary formation, the length of time airborne matter will remain suspended in the
air will depend upon its density, shape and size and meteorological conditions. Suspended particles are
deposited by dry deposition, either by sedimentation and gravitational settling or impaction due to
atmospheric turbulence and diffusion. This latter process is characteristic of particles which undergo
Brownian movement and sizes below 0.1µm.
The larger, so-called "coarse" particles are mostly produced by mechanical processes,
such as automobile tire wear on the road, industrial cutting, grinding and pulverizing
processes and re-suspension of particles from the ground or other surfaces by wind and
human activities. The chemical composition of coarse particles may be somewhat
similar to the chemical composition of soil in that area, along with industrial compounds
from activities such as mining or smelting operations.
Field data are being integrated into well-developed and tested models to better understand and
characterize aerosol pollution in Mexico City. The spatial, temporal, size, and chemical
characteristics of specific emissions sources are needed to allow their contributions to PM
concentrations to be distinguished from each other and to provide accurate inputs to air quality