Care for pregnant women differs fundamentally from most other medical
endeavours. ‘Routine’ care during pregnancy and birth interferes in the
lives of healthy people, and in a process which has the potential to be
an important life experience. It is diffi cult to measure the extent to which
our efforts may, for example, disturb the development of a confi dent,
nurturing relationship between mother and baby. The harmful effects we
measure in randomised trials are limited to those we have predicted may
The probiotic bacteria must be viable to affect the
health, but the non-viable bacteria could also affect the immunological status of the
host. It is believed that the arrival of probiotic bacteria with food to different parts of
intestine can increase probiotic bacteria adherence and the rate of colonization. Food
products may contain many forms of probiotic bacteria, including culture concentrate
that is added to a food (dried or deep-freeze form), the fermented or non-fermented
food products, and dietary supplements in the form of drug products-powder,
capsules or tablet.
The next important milestone emerged in 1990 when three independent working groups
described the role of2-glycoprotein I as a target antigen in antiphospholipid antibodies’
action (Galli M, et al; 1990, Matsura E, et al; 1990, McNeil HP, et al; 1990). This discovery
substantially changed point of view of many of the researchers and also clinical practisers in
the topic and it led to research of 2-glycoprotein I structure, function and confirmation of
significance of its antibodies presence during the next years....
Urinary incontinence is a condition that affects a significant proportion of the
population. The prevalence increases with age and there is a female preponderance.
With the advent of more aggressive management strategies for prostate cancer, there is
an increase in the proportion of men struggling with incontinence as well.
Incontinence has social, physical, psychological and economic implications for the
individual as well as society as a whole.
Undernutrition affects large populations of boys and girls in developing countries. Its major
determinant is poverty, which usually combines with other important factors like poor
breastfeeding practices and inadequate complementary foods for babies, as well as lack of
basic health care, safe water and sanitation. Globally, about 150 million children under five
years are undernourished, which comprises 27% of the world’s population in this age group.
Twelve million of these children die every year, and protein-energy malnutrition is
implicated in more than 55% of all these deaths.
Characterization of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (AnGR) involves three
types of information: phenotypic, genetic and historical. The weight given to each depends
on the country (e.g. whether it is developed or developing) and the objective (e.g. improve-
ment, conservation or breed differentiation). These guidelines focus on the collection and
use of phenotypic information.
Women’s nutritional conditions differ widely among and within countries. Such conditions
are worst in the less-developed regions and countries of the world, where poverty, social
disparities, discrimination, and different kinds of malnutrition affect large populations.
Government incentives and guarantees can then also be used – from support for research and
development (R&D) - which affects operational efficiency- to investment incentives (capital grants, loan
guarantees and low-interest rate loans), taxes (accelerated depreciation, tax credits, tax exemptions and
rebates), and price-based policies at the output stage (which affect revenue streams - e.g. feed-in tariffs), or
policies which target the cost of investment in capital by hedging or mitigating risk.
This report discusses the nature of investment in public transportation capital
investments and operations in the United States, the ways in which that
investment affects the economy, and the additional impacts of public
transportation investments and services on economic growth in the United States.
some of the most important choices you must make as a woman are those for
which you may be least prepared.Your decisions about sexual activity, contraception,family
planning, and reproductive health can affect your life in profound ways. Ideally you
should make these choices, sometimes in conjunction with your doctor or health care
provider, based on accurate information and thoughtful consideration.
As with any risk that threatens the viability of business operations, continuity planning is
critical. All businesses will be affected by an influenza pandemic. In addition to the
threat to human health, the economic impacts of a pandemic, including absenteeism in
the workplace or the downstream effects stemming from supply-chain and travel
disruption, will be significant and widespread.
All businesses should take immediate steps to develop continuity plans that protect
employees, minimize disruptions, and contain negative impacts on customers, the
economy, and local communities.
Recent expansion of biomedical knowledge on the interactions between the
fetus, placenta, and the mother have transformed our view of pregnancy in
general. Recent basic and clinical investigations have improved significantly our
understanding on how hormones affect the pregnancy, and on how pregnancy
affects the fetal and maternal hormones. Because pregnancy may be seen as the
ultimate hormonally mediated event, the topic of endocrinology of pregnancy is
The CGAP is the sum of an economy’s idiosyncratic
performance over the two years from the first quarter of 2008 to the fourth quarter of 2009. A
positive value indicates that an economy outperformed the global economy while a negative
value indicates underperformance. A value of 10%, for example, implies that an economy
had real GDP growth 10% higher than we would expect, given the path of the global
economy, over this two year period.
Institute of Science and Technology for Society
launched an R&D Project: Identification of Factors
Affecting Cognitive and Behavioral Development of
Children in Japan Based on a Cohort Study (FY2004
to 2008) (the Japan Children's Study). By taking
the cohort study approach and targeting infants
and small children, the study aims to determine
the influence of social and living environments on
mental, physical, and language development as well
as their mechanisms, in particular, the neural base
and the development of sociability during different
During the last decades, global organizations and women’s rights advocates have called on
governments to recognise the multiple determinants of women’s health, and there has been a
growing consensus about the need to integrate and widen health services to respond to a
broad variety of problems affecting them.
A specialist in obstetrics/gynecology is a physician with special education and expertise in the
field of women’s' health and reproduction. He/she has the appropriate medical, surgical and
obstetrical knowledge and skills for the prevention, diagnosis and management of a broad range
of conditions affecting women's reproductive and gynecological health. As well as providing
clinical care and education in normal and complicated obstetrics and gynecology, he/she may
contribute significantly to research.
Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency
during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin
A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause
blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of
HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube
defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.
Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy usually lead to intrauterine growth retardation,
which is one of the main causes of foetal and infant undernutrition in developing countries.
Every year, 30 million newborns, or 23% of 126 million births per year, are affected by
intrauterine growth retardation; by contrast, in developed countries the rate is only about 2%
(World Health Organization 2000a).
When a woman is healthy, she has the energy and strength to
do her daily work, to fulfill the many roles she has in her family
and community, and to build satisfying relationships with others.
In other words, a woman’s health affects every area of her life.
Yet for many years, ‘women’s health care’ has meant little more
than maternal health services such as care during pregnancy and
bir th. These services are necessary, but they address women’s
needs only as mothers.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common known
preventable cause of mental impairment. Babies with FAS
have distinctive changes in their facial features and they
may be born small. The brain damage that occurs with
FAS can result in lifelong problems with learning, memory,
attention, and problem solving. These alcohol-related
changes in the brain may be present even in babies whose
appearance and growth are not affected.