This briefing paper was commissioned by Ericsson (global provider of
telecommunications equipment and related services) and Zain (mobile operator
active in seven Middle Eastern and fifteen sub-Saharan African countries) in order
to describe the social and economic impact that mobile communication is having in
Sudan. The paper aims to give a concise overview of the key economic and social
effects of mobile telephony in Sudan and the social and economic development case
for continued investment in telecommunications infrastructure by foreign companies.
Mathematics and science are key areas of knowledge for the development of individuals and for the social and economic development of South Africa. In November 2002, about 9000 Grade 8 learners from South African public schools participated in the Trends in International Mathematics...
nnovation is widely acknowledged as being key to economic growth and progress, particularly as innovation by business enterprises is vital in ensuring their future success and competitiveness in an increasingly competitive global market. With this in mind, the Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators (CeSTII) was commissioned by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) to undertake a national innovation survey based on international best practice.
This publication will assist researchers, students and the public in their understanding of socio-economic rights. The book considers whether the rights listed in the Bill of Rights have been given effect to and gives an understanding of the processes followed by the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) in monitoring such rights.
A country’s attitudinal profile is as much a part of its social reality as are its demographic make-up, its culture and its distinctive social patterns. It helps to provide a nuanced picture of a country’s circumstances, its continuities and changes, its democratic health, and how it feels to live there. It also helps to measure the country’s progress towards the achievement of its economic, social and political goals, based on the measurement of both ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ realities....
The EU’s common purpose was principally economic and le-
gal, but despite its economic strength, the EU is weak both as
a political and as a military entity. People in the European
Union take for granted personal, economic and social liber-
ties, such as the freedom of movement. Attaining this level of
individual liberty has been an incredible achievement. But
very few EU citizens feel any responsibility to defend these
liberties by military force, should the need arise.
Locating the South African challenges within a broader international perspective, this study covers all the major economic growth challanges from employment, industrial policy, urban governance, and the informal economy to the social challenges of poverty, inequality, HIV/AIDS, and health policy.
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In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Give a brief overview of different views of the role of government in the economy, list key issues confronting Southern African governments regarding their role in the economy, distinguish between the main institutional categories of the public sector, discuss the salient features of and trends in the size and composition of the South African public sector, discuss various aspects of the relationship between the public sector and the rest of the economy.
The role of interest rate in the determination of investment and, hence economic
growth, has been a matter of controversy over a long period of time. Yet, what constitutes an
appropriate interest rate policy still remains to be a puzzling question. Until the early 1970s,
the main line of argument was that because the interest rate represents the cost of capital, low
interest rates will encourage the acquisition of physical capital (investment) and promotes
economic growth. Thus, during that era, the policy of low real interest rate was adopted by ...
Ten years ago when I wrote the foreword to the first edition of this book, the
concept of women’s health was changing at a rapid pace. The focus was just
shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded
perception that women’s health encompasses biological, familial, cultural, economic,
emotional, psychological, and behavioral elements of each woman and her
sociopolitical environment, beyond just the reproductive organs and across her
A large majority of the Wisconsin household population is non-Hispanic white (86%), according to
estimates from the 2008 Family Health Survey. Six percent of the population is non-Hispanic black
or African American, and 5 percent is Hispanic or Latino. One percent of the population is non-
Hispanic American Indian, 1 percent is non-Hispanic Asian, less than 0.5 percent is non-Hispanic
other, and 1 percent is composed of non-Hispanic members of two or more racial groups (Figure 9).
In the past, environmental goods and services were seen as having limited economic importance.
Now, environmental issues and activities pervade every aspect of our economic life and performance
and are subject to challenging national and international targets, strict monitoring regimes and
ongoing discussion and debate in the media. As understanding of environmental challenges has
grown, so too has appreciation of the size of the market and the associated business opportunities.
The diversification of economic activity and labour market development have both
been identified as possible strategies to reduce the vulnerability of the poor and
enable the ascent out of poverty. Whether such policies are necessarily empow-ering for women has been much debated but less well documented. In this book we
adopt a comparative case study approach using original survey material for three
African countries and a state in India to investigate these links
Development planning is a contested terrain, particularly
in sub-Saharan Africa. Historically, the approach to
African development has been externally oriented. For the
past four decades, the subcontinent has been negotiating
its development with external partners. More often than
not, this has meant that the process, instruments and
outcomes of development have been determined by
external partners, rather than by African societies and
What Others are Saying about African American Core Values: A Guide for Everyone "In what has obviously been a labor of love, Richard Rosenfield compiles a useful compendium of folk wisdom which, while coming out of the African American community, is of profound relevance to all Americans. Reaching across the generations and spanning the range from academic to popular discourses, Rosenfield reproduces here one nugget of insight after the other. All of our young people need to read and reflect upon this invaluable book." --GLENN C. LOURY, Merton P.
The future potential demand for organic products in the Transkei and the Ciskei is also
shown in Figure 4. The trend in Figure 4 showed that the four products with the highest
potential demand in the Transkei and the Ciskei in order of priority are Fresh vegetables;
fresh fruits; milk and milk products; and meat and meat products. Generally the trend in
Figure 4 shows that there are marked increases in the future demand of all organic
products. This augurs well for the growth of the organic industry in the Eastern Cape and...
The second industry effect analyzed in our paper takes account of the fact that the
human capital of an independent executive can be proxied by the performance of the
company where the non-executive director is employed as an executive director.
One particular issue with relating director quality to firm performance is that the latter
may be influenced by a variety of factors beyond managerial control, such as an
overall economic downturn or industry shock. Firm performance is therefore a very
noisy measure of director quality. ...
Protected areas are considered essential for biodiversity conservation and the main
hope we have of halting the extinction of many threatened or endangered species.
Since protected areas can also be a significant source of financial benefits their
management is complicated and dependent on many external factors. It has been
demonstrated that careful economic and social development are preconditions for
successful protected area management.
The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is historically anchored in South
Africa’s Western Cape province, and long precedes the HIV
epidemic. This is despite the generally better socio-economic
status of the population and greater overall healthcare expenditure
in this region than in other provinces. Contributing factors include
overcrowding, alcohol abuse, poverty, and administrative neglect
of the National TB Programme (NTP).1 This traditional ‘Cape’
epidemic is now being significantly augmented by an HIVassociated