Universities seem not well prepared to ‘educate’ transformation skills. Like undergraduate programs,
most MBA programs focus on traditional, disciplinary knowledge (e.g. marketing, accounting / finance,
human resources, operations management, and information systems), although complex transformations
require cross-disciplinary skills. Even at renowned business schools, integrated, cross-disciplinary pro-
grams focusing on change are hard to find (Team Denzler, 2002). If they exist at all, ‘change’ programs
often are restricted to soft factors and exclude technology issues.