At the lower end of the uterus is the cervix, a narrow opening. It is
through the cervix that the sperm traveled on their way to the egg cell.
Connecting the cervix to the outside of the body is the vagina. The
vagina is made up of muscular tissue. It is into the vagina that sperm are
ejaculated from the penis. Also, the vagina is the birth canal, through
which the infant passes as it leaves the mother’s body during childbirth.
Unlike in males, the reproductive pathway in females is not combined
with the pathway for excretion.
In an effort to highlight these problems and provide concrete steps toward change, the National Latina Institute for Repro-
ductive Health (NLIRH) proudly presents the National Latina Agenda for Reproductive Justice (Agenda). The ﬁrst part of the
Agenda provides an analysis of the most salient reproductive health and rights issues impacting Latinas, followed by a set
of policy recommendations and action strategies to address Latinas’ speciﬁc reproductive health needs.
The Physicians’ Health Study II, which included more than 14,000 male physicians aged 50
or older, found that neither vitamin E nor vitamin C supplements reduced the risk of major
cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease), cancer,
or cataracts. In fact, vitamin E supplements were associated with an increased risk of
hemorrhagic stroke in this study.
Incidence and Prevalence About 19,900 cases of myeloma were diagnosed in 2007, and 10,790 people died from the disease in the United States. Myeloma increases in incidence with age. The median age at diagnosis is 68 years; it is uncommon under age 40. The yearly incidence is around 4 per 100,000 and remarkably similar throughout the world. Males are more commonly affected than females, and blacks have nearly twice the incidence of whites. Myeloma accounts for ~1% of all malignancies in whites and 2% in blacks; 13% of all hematologic cancers in whites and 33% in blacks.
The incidence of...
The annual incidence of CLL varies with the age and sex structure of the population.
Whereas in the USA it has been estimated at 3.5 per 100,000 (males 5.0: females 2.5) , in
the UK estimates of 6.15 per 100,000 have been reported . However, since in a majority of
patients diagnosis is established because of an incidental blood count performed for
irrelevant reasons and because of increasing life expectancies, the prevalence should
augment in the future. The median age for diagnosis is 70 for males and 74 for females.
Bechara et al. conducted their gambling task with a population of healthy adults and a
population of individuals with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM). They
found that the VM patients, unlike the healthy adults, did not gradually shift their choices
to the more advantageous deck B. Other studies employing Bechara’s design have found
that individuals with damaged orbitofrontal cortex have an impaired ability at adapting their
deck preferences to deck B in comparison to control subjects (Damasio, 1994). Denburg
The prevalence of hypertension in children ranges from less
than1%to5.1%. While pediatric hypertension was
previously assumed to be secondary to renal, cardiovascular
or endocrine causes, there is now increased evidence that
it could be a part of a spectrum of essential hypertension,
mainly linked to the obesity epidemic. The three most
common symptoms of hypertension in children are head-
ache, diﬃculty sleeping, and tiredness, all of which improve
Spinal disorders are among the most common medical conditions, having a significant
impact on health-related quality of life, use of health care resources and
socioeconomic costs. As a therapeutic measure, spinal surgery is still one of the
most rapidly growing areas in clinical medicine, and is a major contributor to the
continuously increasing costs of modern-day medicine. Similarly, the increasingly
aging population will have a greater need for the treatment of degenerative
spinal disorders, particularly secondary spinal deformities and stenosis.
Storage of putative stem/progenitor cells is also an attractive research target in tissue
engineering. Collection of cells for tissue engineering is less invasive than conventional
tissue or organ transplantation. However, repetitive collection of cells can stress patients. If
the stem/progenitor cells could be stored, it is possible that they could be repeatedly used
for future therapy, reducing the burden and the cost to patients. The concept of banking
stem/progenitor cells in storage is not new. Stem/progenitor cell populations decrease in
size with age (D'Ippolito et al.
More recently the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) (Thompson et al.
2003) demonstrated that there is no PSA threshold below which one can confidently
exclude a diagnosis of prostate cancer. The PCPT trial protocol required “normal” men
with very low levels of PSA to be biopsied at the end of the trial and it was observed that
39.2% of men with a PSA 2.1-3.0 ng/mL, 27.7% of men with a PSA 1.1-2.0 ng/mL, and
16.3% of men with a PSA
Familiarity with lacrimal system embryology is necessary to understand
congenital abnormalities of the nasolacrimal drainage system.
The orbital walls are embryologically derived from neural crest cells.
Ossifi cation of the orbital walls is completed by birth except at the
orbital apex. The lesser wing of the sphenoid is initially cartilaginous,
unlike the greater wing of the sphenoid and other orbital bones that
develop via intramembranous ossifi cation.
This is a dynamic process was first observed in post-industrial European societies in the
nineteenth century. The United Nations Conference of Ageing Populations in the context of
the family held in Japan in1994 observed that all developed countries at least one
demographic issue in common: population aging which was the inevitable consequence of
fertility decline. But although fertility decline is usually the driving force behind changing
population age structures, changes in mortality assume greater importance as countries reach
lower levels of fertility.
This paper concerns primarily the elderly who live in congregate care settings, including independent living, assisted living, long term care, or continuing care retirement communities (CCRF). Concern for quality of life of older residents must today, more than ever before, include intensive planning and preparation for emergencies and disasters that would compromise the safety of our most at-risk elderly.
The most commonly used measures of current fertility are the total fertility rate (TFR) and its
component age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs). The TFR is an estimate of the average number of
births a woman would have at the end of her reproductive years if she bears children at the prevailing
age-specific fertility rates throughout her childbearing years (age 15-49). The ASFRs are defined in
terms of the number of live births among women in a particular age group divided by the number of
woman-years in that age group during the specific period.
Objective: Previous research suggests that engaging in mentally stimulating tasks may improve
brain health and cognitive abilities. Using computer search engines to find information
on the Internet has become a frequent daily activity of people at any age, including middleaged
and older adults.
Abdominal or pelvic mass can present at any age of life. In a random sample of 335 asymptomatic women aged 25–40 years, the point prevalence of an adnexal lesion on ultrasound examination was 7.8%(prevalence of ovarian cysts 6.6%)1. Preva- in a woman’s lower abdo-lence of pelvic masses in postmenopausal women can vary widely from 2.5% to 10% in postmeno-pausal women.
Mortality from breast cancer is falling in all age groups; in 1999, case-
fatality rates were about one-fifth lower than in the mid-1980s. The
reasons for this are not certain, but earlier diagnosis through
screening and improvements in treatment, particularly greater use of
adjuvant therapies, undoubtedly contribute.
Five-year survival rates are highest among people aged 50-59 at
diagnosis; both younger and older patients have a lower survival rate
Survival rates vary with the biological characteristics of the tumour and
the stage of development at which it is detected. About 50% of
patients have early disease at the time of initial diagnosis (stage I, T1,
N0 – tumour confined to breast)5
, for which the prognosis is excellent;
fewer than 5% of patients have metastatic disease (stage IV) at this
point, although the likelihood of an initial diagnosis of advanced
breast cancer tends to increase with age.
In our study, we aimed to determine the validity of diagnostic methods for tuberculosis. Eighty-one
people suspected to have tuberculosis were included in the study. The validity of the applied methods
for the diagnosis of tuberculosis tuberculin skin test (TST), sputum smear, and used in diagnostic chest
X-ray findings (CXR), clinical features and history were evaluated as culture was considered the
reference test. Included in the study of 81 people (54 males 27 females) mean age was determined as
45.04 ± 18.69.
Peripheral cyanosis is common in children at any age and is not important.
Central cyanosis is always important but may be missed in a child with
severe anaemia or children with pigmented skin. It is detected by looking at
the colour of the tongue – blue colouration suggests a saturation of less than
85%. Central cyanosis is not improved by breathing 100% oxygen and its
presence should be confirmed by a pulse oximeter. Long standing cyanosis
may be associated with ‘clubbing’ of the nails of the hands and feet.