Aggregation pheromones

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  • Our results generally showed that in the investigated microbial community autotrophic component was dominant over the heterotrophic component during the winter season, while dominance of heterotrophic component in the microbial community was observed during the warmer seasons. Further, within the prokaryotic community heterotrophic prokaryotes were mostly dominant throughout the studied area.

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  • Yadav et al. (2007) studied on fertilizer industrial discharge showed that some components in the discharge may interact with each other and produce toxic to aquatic organisms. For instance, the interaction between dissolved oxygen and ammonia changed the respiratory physiology in fresh water fish. In addition, results showed that the toxicity of the effluent in fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure.

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  • Since there is a premium put on specialized talents and backgrounds and the need to attract capital by performing exceptionally well, I have found that investors require relatively high minimum annual rates of returns in the 20-25% range. The risky and illiquid nature of this market make such required returns necessary. As we will show, however, the average performance in this market over the last 11 years, although good, has been considerably below the 20-25% per year range. The remainder of this chapter reports on the performance of defaulted bonds in the 1987-1998 period.

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  • This analysis takes as given that improved information and accounting methods are costly. While costs will vary across different types of improved information -- and are by no means always easy to measure -- they are conceptually straightforward to define. Information's costs include the labor and capital costs necessary to acquire, apply, and verify new information. The costs may be associated with a diverse set of activities, including technical R&D, financial analysis, process engineering studies, software development, inventory controls, and supplier surveys.

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  • The objective of this thesis was to study the interactions of microbial activity, biocide usage and creation, and chemical changes in the papermaking process. The main focus was on oxidative biocide systems. In addition, new measurement and biocide production methods were applied to papermaking, and evaluated for the monitoring and control of the microbiological state and biocide usage. The measurement methods were based on portable handheld online equipments whereas the biocide production was based on electrochemical generation of biocides.

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  • In addition, the Act significantly narrows the exemptions from registration contained in (i) Section 203(b)(1) of the Advisers Act (which generally exempts from SEC registration intrastate advisers) to expressly exclude investment managers that advise Private Funds, and (ii) Section 203(b)(6) of the Advisers Act (which generally exempts from SEC registration advisers registered with the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) as commodity trading advisers) to limit that exception to advisers who do not “predominately” provide securities-related advice.

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  • This potential disparity in availability of private insurance between regions and crops is sometimes cited as a reason for government intervention (U.S. GAO, 1980; Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999), but here again, crop insurance is not unique. Many risk management tools used by farmers are available only in certain regions. For example, cash forward contracting is widely available for corn and soybean producers in the Midwest, although the same is not necessarily true for producers in regions where basis risk is high.

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  • To which extent this decrease in bond yields is associated with changes in short-term or long-term rates becomes more evident when looking at the yield curve defined as the 10-year government bond yield minus the three months Euribor shown in Figure 2. Over the entire year, the slope of the yield curve fell by roughly 20 bp to somewhat less than 130 bp. The same trend is also illustrated by the implied one-year forward rate in nine years, as extracted from the German zero-coupon curve. 20 The rate falls by 10 bp in the course of year, although there are sizeable developments over time.

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  • The urban-rural meta-narrative seems likely to have a generally positive impact on these D-P types, as they are net gainers in terms of population and economic activity, due both to counter-urbanisation and in-migration from remoter regions. The Globalisation meta narrative (here interpreted mainly in terms of economic restructuring effects) is also likely to have predominantly positive impacts upon these types of non-urban region.

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  • Should you invest in a penthouse or in a studio? A three-story colonial or a two-bedroom ranch? The first time out, it’s probably best to invest in something on the small side. Unless you’re buying a move-in condition property and have a reliable tenant waiting in the wings, there’ll probably be a period of time before your investment starts generating income. During that period, you’ll have to make loan payments on the investment property from your regular income.

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  • In June 2001, independent research firm Computer Economics released the results of a study on potential privacy problems in different industry sectors. Banking and finance organizations were determined to be the most susceptible to privacy management problems. The transportation, wholesale, and retail industries also ranked high on the privacy problem susceptibility index compiled by Computer Economics.

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  • The pricing of credit-sensitive bonds, that is, bonds which have a significant probability of default, is an issue of increasing academic and practical importance. The recent practice in financial markets has been to issue high yield corporate bonds that are a hybrid of equity and risk-free debt. Also, to an extent, most corporate bonds are credit-sensitive instruments, simply because of the limited liability of the issuing enterprise. In this paper, we suggest and implement a model for the pricing of options on credit-sensitive bonds.

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  • However, while this phenomenon has gained more attention over the past years, as Prasad et al. (2007) remark, this fact even seems to hold over a longer period. Over the whole period from 1970 to 2000, developing countries and emerging markets with more favourable and even positive current account positions (which implies net capital exports of these countries) have recorded higher per-capita GDP growth rates.

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  • Los efectos de primer orden de las restricciones leves a la entrada de bancos han sido favorables, tanto dentro de Estados Unidos como en otros países. A nivel internacional, los beneficios de dejar entrar bancos extranjeros parecen depender del grado de desarrollo, pero al menos en los países en desarrollo los bancos que llegan son más eficientes que los que ya están, y la competencia más ruda parece mejorar la eficiencia de la banca en general. Contrastando con estos efectos de primer orden, las implicancias de una mayor entrada sobre la estabilidad no son tan obvias.

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  • In this section we develop a simple model of operating cash flows and the accounting process by which operating cash flow forecasts are incorporated into accounting earnings. The model explains why operating cash flow changes have negative serial correlation and how earnings incorporate the negative serial correlation to become a better forecast of future operating cash flows than current operating cash flows. The model also explains other time series properties of earnings, operating cash flows and accruals.

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  • The Group assesses the recoverability of deferred tax assets based on estimates of future earnings.The ability to recover these taxes depends ultimately on the Group’s ability to generate taxable earnings over the period for which the deferred tax assets remain deductible.This analysis is based on the estimated schedule for reversing deferred tax liabilities, as well as estimates of taxable earnings, which are sourced from internal projections and are continuously updated to reflect the latest trends.

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  • The Product Backlog will include a variety of items, such as features (“enable all users to place book in shopping cart”), development requirements (“rework the transaction processing module to make it scalable”), exploratory work (“investigate solutions for speeding up credit card validation”), and known bugs (“diagnose and fix the order processing script errors”). Many people like to articulate the requirements in terms of “user stories”: concise, clear descriptions of the functionality in terms of its value to the end user of the product.

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  • Almost all of the Ph.D. students are either financed by some form of fellowship or assistantship. Of course, it is better to have a fellowship in the first year so that you don’t devote any time or energy for teaching or grading purposes. But being a TA is not a bad thing. One of the authors of this paper believes that teaching and even grading (unless you happen to grade 400 homeworks every weekend) during the first year helps you to relax. In addition to that, it is very likely that after finishing your Ph.D. you will need to teach...

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  • Floods can cause serious indirect impacts, including damage to important energy, water, communications and transport infrastructure. They can also interfere with basic public services such as schools and hospitals. The National Flood Risk Assessment shows that a sizeable part of our important infrastructure and public services are in flood risk areas. This is especially so for water-related infrastructure that needs to be near rivers. For example, over 55 per cent of water and sewage pumping stations/treatment works are in flood risk areas, with 34 per cent at significant risk....

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  • A third has to do with the asym- metry in information between provider and pa- tient concerning the outcomes of intervention; providers advise patients on choice of treatment, and when the providers' income is linked to this advice, excessive treatment can result. As a conse- quence of these last two considerations, in unregu- lated private markets costs escalate without appre- ciable health gains to the patient.

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