Urinary incontinence is a condition that affects a significant proportion of the
population. The prevalence increases with age and there is a female preponderance.
With the advent of more aggressive management strategies for prostate cancer, there is
an increase in the proportion of men struggling with incontinence as well.
Incontinence has social, physical, psychological and economic implications for the
individual as well as society as a whole.
When the first edition of this book was published in 1993, I commented how
notions regarding Tourette’s syndrome (TS) had undergone recent dramatic
changes. Major shifts in views of the disorder included identification of its
complex spectrum of clinical features (including tics and specific behavioral
disorders, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder), establishment of heredity as a major etiological
factor, and recognition that, rather than a rare disorder, it occurs quite
commonly in the population....
and SpA may be found in 1-
12% of patients with Crohn`s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, with higher incidence of
peripheral arthritis; sacroiliitis may occur asymptomatic or with typical symptoms.
Reactive arthritis tends to be more aggressive and as a longer duration in HLA-B*27
positive cases (50%). Asymmetrical acute peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, acute
sacroiliitis, urogenital inflammation, and ocular manifestations are common and may
last several months to two years.
Patients with follicular lymphoma have a high rate of histologic transformation to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (5–7% per year). This is recognized ~40% of the time during the course of the illness by repeat biopsy and is present in almost all patients at autopsy. This transformation is usually heralded by rapid growth of lymph nodes—often localized—and the development of systemic symptoms such as fevers, sweats, and weight loss.
1. Poor prognostic factors: age younger than 2 years, incomplete resection, supratentorial location, duration of symptoms less than 1 month, and anaplastic histology. 2. The 5-year survival after complete resection and radiotherapy is 70% to 87% compared to 30% to 40% for partially
resection; overall 10-year survival of 50%.
3. In children, fourth-ventricle tumors clinically more aggressive. 4. Anaplastic ependymoma has a 12% 5-year survival. 5. Subependymoma is indolent and often does not require treatment. 6.
Numerous misconceptions surround endogenous infections. For example, many women
believe, or are mistakenly told by medical practitioners, that their symptoms result from much
more serious sexually transmitted infections. This can occur if the presence of inflammation or
discharge caused by endogenous infections is confused with discharge produced by STIs such
as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Indeed, many studies show that even experienced clinicians cannot
reliably distinguish between vaginal discharge caused by sexually transmitted or endogenous