Agricultural landscapes

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  • In response to a growing need to bridge aspects of geography and ecology, Troll (1950, 1968) coined the term “landscape ecology,” which was adopted as a new scientific discipline. According to Troll (1968), the landscape can be studied in terms of its morphology, classification, and changes in time (history), as well as the functional relationships between its components, which he called landscape ecology. Troll also considered that problems of landscape protection as well as management should be included in geographical analyses of landscapes.

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  • Understanding greenhouse gas sources, emissions, measurements, and management is essential for capture, utilization, reduction, and storage of greenhouse gas, which plays a crucial role in issues such as global warming and climate change. Taking advantage of the authors' experience in greenhouse gases, this book discusses an overview of recently developed techniques, methods, and strategies: - A comprehensive source investigation of greenhouse gases that are emitted from hydrocarbon reservoirs, vehicle transportation, agricultural landscapes, farms, non-cattle confined buildings, and so on.

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  • In 1950, the United States Department of Energy (then the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission) began purchasing the land that became the present Savannah River Site (SRS). All residents were removed (figure A), and in 1951 the government closed the site to the public to begin work on production of nuclear weapons materials. At the time, abandoned agricultural fields dominated upland areas, and the SRS and the USDA Forest Service initiated an aggressive reforestation program.

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  • Agricultural development is widely recognized as crucial for poverty reduction. At the same time, agricultural expansion and ever more intensive practices are widely recognized for their contribution to ecosystem degradation. Less well recognized is that, in many cases, agriculture offers the potential to generate both poverty reduction and better environmental outcomes. The studies presented in this volume look at one policy tool that may address this gap: payments for environmental services (PES).

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  • Aligned to the principle that development needs to start with what people know and build on their knowledge and experiences, the authors of this paper provide some examples of how important indigenous or local knowledge is to its users, different ways in which they use this knowledge, and the potential that indigenous knowledge has in some areas of agricultural development.

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  • This book explores four overlapping themes in biogeography among multiple plant and animal groups, across subcontinental to global spatial scales, and over evolutionary time. These four themes include: 1) biogeographic theory and tests of concepts and processes; 2) the regional biogeography of individual taxa; 3) historical and contemporary biogeography of complex landscapes; and 4) the evolutionary biogeography of macrotaxa. In the first chapter of the conceptual biogeography section, Khalid Al Mutairi et al.

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  • Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.

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  • The word horticulture is one of those broad words under which much is grouped. It includes the cultivation of orchard fruits, such as apples and plums; of small fruits, such as strawberries and raspberries; of garden vegetables for the table; of flowers of all sorts, including shrubbery and ornamental trees and their arrangement into beautiful landscape effects around our homes. Horticulture then is a name for an art that is both far-reaching and important.

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  • The general lay-out of a small home property having now been considered, we may discuss the practical operations of executing the plan. It is not intended in this chapter to discuss the general question of how to handle the soil: that discussion comes in Chapter IV; nor in detail how to handle plants: that occurs in Chapters V to X; but the subjects of grading, laying out of walks and drives, executing the border plantings, and the making of lawns, may be briefly considered. Of course the instructions given in a book, however complete, are very inadequate and unsatisfactory...

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  • Soil erosion is a hazard traditionally associated with agriculture in tropical and semi-arid areas and is important for its long-term effects on soil productivity and sustainable agriculture. It is, however, a problem of wider significance occurring additionally on land devoted to forestry, transport and recreation. Erosion also leads to environmental damage through sedimentation, pollution and increased flooding. The costs associated with the movement and deposition of sediment in the landscape frequently outweigh those arising from the long-term loss of soil in eroding fields.

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  • The scientific literature suggests that the best unit to assess ecosystems is the 'socio-ecological system (SES)' (Gallopin, 1991, Glaser, 2008). SES integrates ecosystem functions and dynamics as well as human activities and the interactions of all these. The SES is equivalent to the SNA's institutional unit. Considering the production of ecosystem services, and in particular provisioning services, SESs are more or less homogenous.

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  • T he Earth has been blessed with an abundant supply of natural resources. Natural resources are those elements that exist on the planet for the use and benefit of all living things. Scientists commonly divide them down into distinct groups for the purposes of studying them. These groups include agricultural resources, plants, animals, energy sources, landscapes, forests, minerals, and water and atmospheric resources.

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  • Against this backdrop, and by way of providing valuable context for some of the more clinically oriented chapters in this book, our chapter considers some of the recent changes and emerging trends within the broader veterinary sector and the actual and potential impact of these on the veterinary business landscape.

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  • If we are to create a sustainable world—one in which we are accountable to the needs of all future generations and all living creatures—we must recognize that our present forms of agriculture, architecture, engineering, and technology are deeply flawed. To create a sustainable world, we must transform these practices. We must infuse the design of products, buildings, and landscapes with a rich and detailed understanding of ecology.

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  • The management of the Australian landscape has occupied a central position in Australian politics since the re-settlement of this continent over 200 years ago. Environmental manage- ment, long recognised as technically complex and challenging, has also been contentious and controversial. The issues associated with coping with lingering droughts, the prospects of sig- nificant climate change, and stemming soil erosion on agricultural lands are now of broad, popular interest.

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  • The changes discussed above under the three headings of the agricultural sector, the gender shift and veterinary education have significant implications for the veterinary business landscape across the broader veterinary sector, impacting beyond the practice wing of the profession. As mentioned at the outset of this chapter, to date, robust academic attention has not been paid to the implications of changes in these areas. Such implications will now be discussed under the relevant headings below. ...

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  • Replacing agricultural land for energy crop plantations, as the former lack proper structure (becauseoffollowingmonoagriculturalpattern)cannotbejustifiedbyanypossibleterms.The biodiversitythatenergycropssupportcanhaveapositiveimpactononetypeofspecieswhere acompletelyharmfulimpactonanother. Plantingnonindigenouscrops for thesake for increasingproductionandprofitmayharm the localbiodiversityevenfurther.Oftennonindigenouscropsdestroythenatural landscapeand may lead to fragmentationof theecologicaldiversity.

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  • Diverse human-produced organic chemicals can enter surface and groundwater through human activities, including pesticide use and industrial processes, and as breakdown products of other chemicals (Carr and Neary 2008). Many of these pollutants, including pesticides and other non-metallic toxins, are used globally, persist in the environment, and can be transported long ranges to regions where they have never been produced (UNEP 2009).

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  • Socio-Ecological Landscape Units (SELU) are produced in turn from LCFU and other geographical dimensions such as relief, belonging to a river basin, or proximity to the sea. LCFU are agglomerated with a methodology which maps dominant land‑cover types. Large forests or agricultural areas will constitute a SELU in their own right while smaller units will be part of a larger zone characterised by its dominant land cover. The Dominant Land Cover Types are then classified according to river basins and relief classes (e.g. coastal, lowland, highland, mountain).

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