It was not until the eighteenth century that the subject of this book, the pollination
services of bees, began to be understood and valued. Nevertheless, the association
between man and bees has been long and close, and dates from at least 2400 BC.
Beekeeping with the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, was a well-developed craft in
ancient Egypt during the fi fth dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
Vietnam has been ranked as one of the most important country in the production of things in the world since 2000. To achieve high productivity, most growers rely heavily on pesticides and chemical fertilizers, leading to increased costs, health problems of farmers, pest resistance, environmental pollution and minimizing the natural enemies and pollinators. To make the production of safe, sustainable and profitable, integrated program improvement (ICI) is necessary.
This book is a compilation of 29 chapters focused on: pesticides and food production, environmental effects of pesticides, and pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The first book section addresses the benefits of the pest control for crop protection and food supply increasing, and the associated risks of food contamination.
Vietnam has been ranked as one of the most important country in the production of
in the world since 2000. To achieve high productivity, most growers rely on
pesticides and chemical fertilizers, leading to increased costs, the health of farmers
problems, insect resistance, environmental pollution and reduction of natural
enemies and pollinators. To do produce safe, sustainable and
profit, an improvement of the integrated program (ICI) is necessa
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the main pollinating agents for numerous
plants and fruit trees and, hence, play a key role in agriculture and
more generally in the maintenance of ecological biodiversity. Although
these social insects are not the targets of all the different agrochemical
treatments used in crop protection, they are widely affected by pesticides.
Agricultural production resorts to the use of a varied and large quantity of insecticides
to improve the production and preservation of foodstuff. Thus, the use of insecticides
has increased rapidly and is now widespread. Beneficial insects like parasitoids
pathogens, predators and pollinators have gained significance. IPM programs have
demonstrated that current levels of pesticide use are not necessary in many situations
and are frequently even counter-productive.