Steels are alloys of iron with generally less than 1% carbon plus a wide range of other elements. Some of these elements are added deliberately to impart special properties and others are impurities not completely removed (sometimes deliberately) during the steel making process. Elements may be present in solid solution or combined as intermetallic compounds with iron, carbon or other elements. Some elements, namely carbon, nitrogen, boron and hydrogen, form interstitial solutions with iron whereas others such as manganese and silicon form substitutional solutions. Beyond......
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Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:496–515 DOI 10.1007/s00170-006-0628-x
A scaffolding architecture for conformal cooling design in rapid plastic injection moulding
Received: 4 August 2005 / Accepted: 25 March 2006 / Published online: 8 June 2006 # Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006
Abstract Cooling design of plastic injection mould is important because it not only affects part quality but also the injection moulding cycle time. Traditional injection mould cooling layout is based on a conventional machining process.
Overall structure of electrical power system isin the process of changing. For incremental
growth, it is moving away from fossil fuels - major source of energy in the world today - to
renewable energy resources that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable .
There are also institutional issues to resolve. A path-dependent technology pattern has
developed in the energy field that encourages the current centralized generation model of
energy supply. When shifting away the capital investments in technology from centrally
planned facilities toward distributed generation, renewable energy technologies and their
prospective customers must fight against a tide of perceptions, practices, and market
structures designed to facilitate the old central-station ways.