This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution....
Modern urban Air Pollution
"summer" (photochemical) smog:
NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3
(reactions worked out on blackboard)
Winter (cold weather) smog:
fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects
Mixture is different in different cities
Traffic important source
Toxicological mechanism still unknown
Health effects even at low concentrations
(from 40 mg/m3?)
Lichens are long-lived and can be monitored, field conditions permitting, in any season. Many lichens
have extensive geographical ranges, allowing study of pollution gradients over large areas. These
properties make them useful for spatial and temporal evaluation of pollutant accumulation in the
environment. Epiphytic lichens (those that grow on trees or plants) are often best suited to the study of air
pollution effects on lichen communities, lichen growth or physiology, and to the study of pollutant loading
The ACS SYMPOSIUM SERIES was founded in 1974 to provide
a medium for publishing symposia quickly in book form. The
format of the SERIES parallels that of its predecessor, ADVANCES
IN CHEMISTRY SERIES, except that in order to save time the
papers are not typeset but are reproduced as they are sub-
mitted by the authors in camera-ready form. As a further
means of saving time, the papers are not edited or reviewed
except by the symposium chairman, who becomes editor of
Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid
urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have
grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is
expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the
many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies
urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial
production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....
Human beings need to breathe oxygen diluted in certain quantity of inert gas for living. In the atmosphere, there is a gas mixture of, mainly, oxygen and nitrogen, in appropriate proportions. However, the air also contains other gases, vapours and aerosols that humans incorporate when breathing and whose composition and concentration vary spatially. Some of these are physiologically inert. Air pollution has become a problem of major concern in the last few decades as it has caused negative effects on human health, nature and properties....
Indoor exposure to air pollutants causes very significant damage to health glo-
bally – especially in developing countries. The chemicals reviewed in this volume
are common indoor air pollutants in all regions of the world. Despite this, public
health awareness on indoor air pollution has lagged behind that on outdoor air
pollution. The current series of indoor air quality guidelines, focuses specifically
on this problem.
The global environment is changing rapidly, partly in response to economic
globalization. These global changes are clearly evident at the local level, even in
the quality of air that people breath. In some high income countries air quality
has been improving, due to a combination of de-industrialization, improved
technologies and environmental regulation. However, advances in the science of
epidemiology suggest that even air that would until recently have been
considered ‘clean’ may contain pollutants that are hazardous to people’s health.
The inclusion of a smooth function of time in a regression model introduces important sta-
tistical issues.We generally do not know precisely the complexity of the seasonal and long-term
trends in themortality time series or in the pollution time series. Therefore, a controversial issue
is determining how much smoothness we should allow for the smooth function of time. This
decision is critical because it determines the amount of residual temporal variation in mortality
that is available to estimate the air pollution effect.
In this paper we provide a comprehensive characterization ofmodel choice andmodel uncer-
tainty in time series studies of air pollution and mortality, focusing on confounding adjustment
for seasonal and long-term trends. We ﬁrst identify analytical approaches that are used com-
monly in air pollution epidemiology formodelling the smooth function of time and for selecting
its degrees of freedom.
Accordingly, for the purpose of impact assessment, it was decided not to use response functions from
daily mortality time-series studies to estimate the excess annual mortality but the change in the
long-term mortality rates associated with ambient air pollution.
Contrary to the exposure function which is assumed to be the same for all countries, the health
outcome frequency (frequency with which a health outcome appears in the population for a defined
time span) may differ across countries. These differences may result from a different age structure or
from other factors (i.e.
Ultimately, most household energy interventions - directly or
indirectly - aim to improve health among their target
populations. This module consists of one presentation and
one practical exercise that are concerned with methods
available to monitor the impact of interventions on children's
and women's respiratory health and overall well-being.
A review of the evidence for the linkages between indoor
air pollution, household energy and health provides the
introduction to this module (Figure 5).
Tham khảo tài liệu 'tropospheric air pollution: ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particles', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Ozone (O3) is well documented as the air pollutant most damaging to
agricultural crops and other plants. Most crops in developed countries are grown in
summer when O3 concentrations are elevated and frequently are sufficiently high to
reduce yields. This article examines the difficulties in scientifically determining the
reduction in yield that results from the exposure of agricultural crops to surface O3 and
then transforming that knowledge into efficient and effective regulatory standards.
Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system
The treatment of contaminated land to eliminate or reduce the presence of
pollutants in the contaminated site has received (and will continue to receive)
considerable attention from the practicing profession. Extensive research and development
are still underway in respect to the delivery of more effective (and economic)
means for site decontamination.
Desai et al. (2004) provide a meta-analysis of health effects from household solid fuel air
pollution. Health effects were categorized by level of evidence from the research
literature. Relative risk ratios associated with solid fuel use, relative to clean fuels such
as LPG, were derived for each health outcome (table 3.1).
The national and global
mortality and DALY estimates presented by WHO (2007) reflect the relative risk ratios in
Desai et al, limiting the health effects to ALRI in children u5, and COPD and lung cancer
in adult women and men.
Benefit-cost ratios of intervention to control or prevent air pollution from household SFU
will depend on what benefits and costs are included in the analysis and how non-market
benefits and costs are valued. Health effects of air pollution are often a major concern
and motivation for intervention. Which health effects to include and how they are valued
are therefore an important consideration in an economic analysis. Large scale household
stove programs have also been motivated by natural resource considerations, for instance
in China in the 1980s.
In a variation to this base case, costs are also calculated where the health effects of
PM10 are estimated without a threshold. This variation provides a sensitivity analysis that
shows how specifying a threshold affects total cost estimates.
As acknowledged by Kunzli et al. (1999), the approach of using one pollutant as an
indicator of the air pollution mix and only estimating the impact of PM10 above a baseline
will probably underestimate the impact of air pollution.