From a health perspective, reducing exposure to indoor air
pollution (IAP) is and should be the primary objective of
household energy interventions. Measuring IAP levels is
particularly important given the difficulty in assessing health
outcomes directly. Thus reductions in pollution levels can be
assessed as a proxy for likely reductions in health outcomes.
The Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring module consists of three
presentations as well as extensive hands-on training to
launch, place and collect the instruments and to download
and process the resulting data.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of chemical
compounds which do not exist in nature but which are manmade.
Commercial mixtures are clear, pale yellow liquids
manufactured by the replacement of hydrogen atoms on the
biphenyl molecule by chlorine. The reaction is controlled
according to the percentage replacement of hydrogen and
results in a product which contain chlorobiphenyls with one
or, more usually, several chlorine atoms attached to each
In the editors’ preface to the fourth edition it was noted that there was good news and there was bad news. It is the
same for this, the fifth edition. One suspects that this will always be the case.
The 2004 Nobel Prize for Peace has been awarded to Professor Dr. Wangari Maathai. Dr. Maathai’s award was
based on her efforts on behalf of conservation and women’s rights. These efforts were made at great personal risk.
In addition, the Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by the requisite number of countries.
Targeting households and firms: influencing location choices. The demand side of
balanced urban development involves measures to influence where households and firms choose
to locate in an urban area. Although they are not yet well established, particularly in the
developing countries, policies to influence location choices have led to some interesting
experiments, including a “reverse” zoning scheme in the Netherlands (the “ABC” policy) and a
mortgage instrument based on “location efficiency” in the United States.
CO measurement options include bag collection and lab
analysis, colour-change diffusion tubes and electro-chemical
monitors. PM measurement options include gravimetric
monitors (pump and filter method) and light-scattering
devices. The advantages and disadvantages of each of
these methods are discussed, including cost, ease-of-use,
accuracy, size detection and time-keeping. The choice of
method depends on the context, i.e. the purpose of the
project or programme, the capacity of staff and available
financial and human resources.
After the two introductory presentations, participants
receive hands-on training in how to operate (launch on a
computer, troubleshoot, etc.) the UCB particle monitor,
the HOBO CO logger and CO diffusion tubes. During a
field trip to a nearby biomass-using home they place the
instruments in the kitchen, record important sampling
information on a sampling data form and collect basic
information about the kitchen and household. A post-
monitoring questionnaire characterizes important factors
that can affect IAP levels.