This book is written to serve as a reference handbook for the practicing engineer or
scientist who needs to prepare the basic process engineering and cost estimation
required for the design of an air pollution control system. The user of this book
should have a fundamental understanding of the factors resulting in air pollution
and a general knowledge of the techniques used for air pollution control.
Welcome to the
Air Pollution Control Equipment Selection Guide
The selection of air pollution control hardware can be a daunting task.
There are literally hundreds of equipment vendors offering a wide variety
of air pollution control technologies. If this book has one purpose, it is to
make that selection process easier.
In the following pages, we have labored to include the important
information required by people interested in air pollution control that can
be used in selecting the proper equipment for any air pollution control
This Handbook provides a concise overview of the latest technologies for managing industrial air pollution in petrochemical, oil and gas, and allied industries. Detailed material on equipment selection, sizing, and troubleshooting operations is provided along with practical design methodology. Unique to this volume are discussions and information on energy-efficient technologies and approaches to implementing environmental cost accounting measures.
Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid
urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have
grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is
expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the
many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies
urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial
production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....
In order to understand and manage our air quality resources, it is necessary to gain
a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern our ability to do so.
From a local perspective, it may be considered desirable to install huge fans in
order to “blow the smog away,” but from a technological and scientific perspective
it is not feasible. Likewise, from a regional or continental perspective, it is not
acceptable to merely transfer air contaminants from one location to another one by
dilution or “blowing it away.”...
In relation to studies and understanding of broad energy and pollution management
issues, the U.S. National Academies have had an on-going program of cooperation with
the Chinese Academies (Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of
Engineering) for a number of years. Joint study activities date to the late 1990s and led to
the publication in 2000 of Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United
States. This volume was the first examination of the broad energy questions facing both
nations at the turn of the new millennium. ...
The global environment is changing rapidly, partly in response to economic
globalization. These global changes are clearly evident at the local level, even in
the quality of air that people breath. In some high income countries air quality
has been improving, due to a combination of de-industrialization, improved
technologies and environmental regulation. However, advances in the science of
epidemiology suggest that even air that would until recently have been
considered ‘clean’ may contain pollutants that are hazardous to people’s health.
Because time-series studies focus on a given geographic location over a number of years,
factors that are often thought to influence the health of the population, such as percentage of
smokers, income level, occupational exposure to pollutants, access to medical care and age
distribution, do not need to be incorporated into the analysis as they are considered to remain
relatively constant within the study area over time. Typically, the only other factors aside from
pollution included in these models are weather variables and seasonal controls.
Collection of reports on medical research published in medical journals' Respiratory Research give you knowledge of medical subjects: "Traffic-related Air Pollution and Respiratory symptoms Among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City : the EVA cohort study ...
Unmeasured confounders are factors that inﬂuencemortality and vary with time in amanner
that is similar to air pollution. These factors produce seasonal and long-termtrends inmortality
that can confound the relationship between mortality and air pollution. Inﬂuenza and respira-
tory infectionsmight reasonably be considered among themost important, usually unmeasured
or not readily available confounders which produce seasonal patterns in mortality.
Critical loads are typically expressed as deposition loading rates of one or more pollutants in amount per area per year (e.g., kilo-
grams per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr)). Critical loads are based on changes to specific biological or chemical indicators such as species
composition of a given ecosystem (e.g., grassland) or biotic community (e.g., understory plants or tree-dwelling lichens) or acid neu-
tralizing capacity (ANC) in soils, streams or lakes. Because different sensitive receptors (e.g.
Indoor Environmental Quality
is the third in a series of books written by the
author over the past decade and focuses on environmental problems and
issues associated with our homes, office buildings, schools, and other nonindustrial
indoor environments. This book differs in several ways from the
author’s previous works,
Indoor Air Pollution Control
Definition, Diagnosis, and Mitigation
As the demand for a clean, safe environment grows, so also grows the public demand
for protection from the health hazards and environmental horrors of hazardous waste
mismanagement. Entrepreneurs of industry and commerce provide daily evidence
of the general awakening to the need for reduction or elimination of hazardous waste
sources and better management of the wastes that are generated.
Many have endeavored to make our outdoor environment cleaner and safer. The learning
process that occurred showed us the limitations of our planet and also the sustainability
of our ecosystem if given a chance. As a community, we learned about the water, the soil,
and the air. We learned about the underground river that flowed to the surface lake. We
learned about air currents that transported airstreams around our globe. We discovered the
reality of plate tectonics and the ever-changing hydrogeological system.
The treatment of contaminated land to eliminate or reduce the presence of
pollutants in the contaminated site has received (and will continue to receive)
considerable attention from the practicing profession. Extensive research and development
are still underway in respect to the delivery of more effective (and economic)
means for site decontamination.
The USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the
forests of the U.S. FIA recently assumed responsibility for all former Forest Health Monitoring program
(FHM) plot work on a national level, and is currently active in 32 states. Lichen community monitoring
was included in FIA in order to address key assessment issues such as the impact of air pollution on forest
resources, spatial and temporal trends in biodiversity, and the sustainability of timber harvesting.
Outside the air regulatory setting, park, forest, and refuge managers may use data from air pollution related
lichen studies to aid management decisions, conduct NEPA analyses, and provide information to the public
about resource condition and impacts. To meet the requirements of the Wilderness Act, Organic Act, and
National Wildlife System Improvement Act, federal land managers often subscribe to what is known as the
This guidance document is intended to serve as a resource for national park, forest, and refuge staff when
considering lichen studies to address air quality concerns. It provides background regarding the use of
lichens as air pollution indicators, their sensitivities to various air pollutants, and the effects of air pollution
on lichen physiology, communities, and tissue chemistry. It discusses the types of information and
objectives that can optimize the utility of lichen studies from an air management and air regulatory