This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution....
Modern urban Air Pollution
"summer" (photochemical) smog:
NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3
(reactions worked out on blackboard)
Winter (cold weather) smog:
fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects
Mixture is different in different cities
Traffic important source
Toxicological mechanism still unknown
Health effects even at low concentrations
(from 40 mg/m3?)
Facilitate access to information on the health effects of indoor and outdoor air
pollution and methods for reducing the risk.
Conduct health impact assessments to determine the magnitude of the health effects
associated with changes in air pollution. This information can be used to identify cost-
effective measures to improve public health, identify critical uncertainties and suggest
productive areas of research.
Facilitate country actions to strengthen air quality management.
Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system
Anthropogenic air pollution constitutes of many substances. Greenhouse gases absorb and
reflect some of the infrared parts of solar radiation reflected from the earth surface thus
causing the troposphere to be warmer. Among others, these substances are carbone-dioxide,
water vapour, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen-oxides and methane. Beyond causing warming,
most of these gases are poisonous to the Earth’s biosphere. Besides greenhouse gases, there
are a few more poisonous substances which have anthropogenic sources.
Air pollution is about five decades or so old field and continues to be a global concern. Therefore,
the governments around the world are involved in managing air quality in their countries for
the welfare of their citizens. The management of air pollution involves understanding air
pollution sources, monitoring of contaminants, modeling air quality, performing laboratory
experiments, the use of satellite images for quantifying air quality levels, indoor air pollution,
and elimination of contaminants through control....
This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....
Policy-relevant background – This is an
estimate based on air pollution models of the
natural background ozone concentrations that
would exist without sources of air pollution
from human activity, and therefore cannot be
affected by emissions control efforts (Fiore
Using the gradient method, element concentrations within the lichen are usually observed to increase as the
distance to the suspected source decreases. Gough and Erdman (1977) used linear regression to evaluate
the relationship between distance from a coal fired power plant and metal levels in Xanthoparmelia
chlorochroa. However, as Puckett (1988) points out, concentrations of many elements will not reach zero
at large distances from pollution sources because they have essential nutritional roles or are normal
components of the lichen when growing in its natural environment.
The major sources of indoor air pollution worldwide include indoor combustion of solid
fuels, tobacco smoking, outdoor air pollutants, emissions from construction materials and
furnishings, and improper maintenance of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Although
some indoor air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, are of concern globally,
profiles of indoor air pollutants and the resulting health risks are generally very different in
developed and developing countries.
The atmosphere is a mixture of several gases surrounding the earth's crust and has a layer
that protects and preserves the lives of human beings and keeping the materials in good
condition and functionality. Once damaged, by pollutants emitted from anthropogenic
and natural sources, the atmosphere reduces the levels of protection due to formation of
the ozone layer. The presence of contaminants in indoors and outdoors influenced by
climatic factors, has a negative effect on human health and the durability of materials.
Indoor air quality is a reflection of the outside air....
The discussion below describes the physical effects of key air pollutants on human
health. This discussion is mostly based on Morgan and Jalaludin’s (2001) review.
Where possible, sensitive subgroups in the population have been identified, including
people with existing disease (mainly respiratory and cardiovascular), people with
infections such as influenza and pneumonia, asthmatics, the elderly and children.
Exposure-response estimates for the key pollutants are presented in Appendix 3.
There exists a range of solutions to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution. This includes
reducing the source of pollution and altering the living environment and user behavior.
Source reduction involves improved cooking devices (with or without flue attached),
cleaner fuel, and reduced need for fire. Alterations to the living environment include
improved ventilation and improved kitchen design and stove placement. Altered user
behavior includes fuel drying, stove and chimney maintenance, use of pot lids to conserve
heat, and keeping children away from the smoke (Bruce et al.
Stable sulfur isotope ratios in combination with multi-element analysis of lichens were used to examine the
influence of emissions from two coal-fired power plants in the Yampa Valley on pollutant deposition in the
Mt. Zirkel Wilderness of northern Colorado (Jackson et al. 1996). Coal-fired power plants typically emit
SO2 with a stable isotope ratio
S characteristic of the coal combusted.
Environmental pollution has played a critical role in human lives since
the early history of the nomadic tribes. During the last millennium,
industrial revolution, increased population growth and urbanization have
been the major determinants in shaping our environmental quality.
Initially primary air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate
matter were of concern. For example, the killer fog of London in 1952
resulted in significant numbers of human fatality leading to major air
pollution control measures....
The different sources of potential confounding in time series studies of air pollution and
mortality can be broadly classiﬁed as either measured or unmeasured. Important measured
confounders include weather variables such as temperature and dewpoint temperature. Daily
temperature measurements are readily available for metropolitan areas in the USA and numer-
ous studies have demonstrated a relationship between temperature and mortality which is gen-
erally positive for warm summer days and negative for cold winter days (e.g. Curriero et al.
In contrast, the smaller or so-called "fine" particles in the urban aerosol come from
combustion sources, such as power plants, automobile, truck, bus and other vehicle
exhaust or from the reactions that transform some of the pollutant gases into solid or
liquid particles. These distinctions may be important because the current air pollution
health effects literature suggests, although not with certainty, that for some key health
effects the fine particles are more important than the coarse particles. These findings
have led EPA to propose a new nationwide PM2.
Air pollution in general, especially air pollution from road traffic in particular in Hochiminh City (HCMC) are at the alarming. Using models to simulate air quality is needed to · manage and predict the air pollution levels. Research results have prepared emission inventory of air pollutants from road traffic, industry and domestic sources in HCMC. Besides, TAPQM and FVM models were used to simulate the meteorological conditions and air quality in HCMC.
Although the main consideration of policy must be the reduction in pollution at
source, there has been an increasing recognition that the biosphere is an important
sink for many pollutants, with plant canopies being considered more effective than
other land uses. Thus, the biosphere provides benefits additional to those associated
directly with their aesthetic and wildlife characteristics. Plants facilitate the uptake,
transport and assimilation or decomposition of many gaseous and particulate
We use a series of computational models to estimate health damages attributable to air
pollution from these plants, we compare these damages to estimates of damages from non-maquiladora
industrial polluters, and we use regression analysis to determine whether the poor suffer
disproportionately from maquiladora air pollution. We find that air pollution from maquiladoras has
serious consequences for human health, including respiratory disease and premature mortality. However,
maquiladoras are clearly not the leading cause of air pollution in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso.