Air quality pollutants

Xem 1-20 trên 118 kết quả Air quality pollutants
  • This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....

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  • The atmosphere is a mixture of several gases surrounding the earth's crust and has a layer that protects and preserves the lives of human beings and keeping the materials in good condition and functionality. Once damaged, by pollutants emitted from anthropogenic and natural sources, the atmosphere reduces the levels of protection due to formation of the ozone layer. The presence of contaminants in indoors and outdoors influenced by climatic factors, has a negative effect on human health and the durability of materials. Indoor air quality is a reflection of the outside air....

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  • This book provides a comprehensive compilation of chapters in air quality modelling, monitoring, exposure, health and control. The book consists of two volumes. Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling and Health mainly consist of chapters describing pioneering research findings in air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure and health; Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling, Health and Control comprises research findings on air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control.

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  • In order to understand and manage our air quality resources, it is necessary to gain a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern our ability to do so. From a local perspective, it may be considered desirable to install huge fans in order to “blow the smog away,” but from a technological and scientific perspective it is not feasible. Likewise, from a regional or continental perspective, it is not acceptable to merely transfer air contaminants from one location to another one by dilution or “blowing it away.”...

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  • Air pollution has been a major transboundary problem and a matter of global concern for decades. High concentrations of different air pollutants are particularly harmful to large cities residents, where numerous anthropogenic activities strongly influence the quality of air. Although there are many books on the subject, the one in front of you will hopefully fulfill some of the gaps in the area of air quality monitoring and modeling, and be of help to graduate students, professionals and researchers....

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  • Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....

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  • The UK Government and devolved administrations are committed to delivering clean air for a good quality of life. We have come a long way since the smogs of the 1950s. We have achieved cleaner air through regulating emissions from industrial processes, progressively tightening emissions and fuel standards for road vehicles and controlling smoke from domestic premises. But there are still sometimes levels of pollution that can significantly harm human health and the environment.

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  • Environmental pollution has played a critical role in human lives since the early history of the nomadic tribes. During the last millennium, industrial revolution, increased population growth and urbanization have been the major determinants in shaping our environmental quality. Initially primary air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter were of concern. For example, the killer fog of London in 1952 resulted in significant numbers of human fatality leading to major air pollution control measures....

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  • Tham khảo sách 'air quality monitoring, assessment and management_1', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.

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  • Air pollution is about five decades or so old field and continues to be a global concern. Therefore, the governments around the world are involved in managing air quality in their countries for the welfare of their citizens. The management of air pollution involves understanding air pollution sources, monitoring of contaminants, modeling air quality, performing laboratory experiments, the use of satellite images for quantifying air quality levels, indoor air pollution, and elimination of contaminants through control....

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  • The atmosphere may be our most precious resource. Accordingly, the balance between its use and protection is a high priority for our civilization. While many of us would consider air pollution to be an issue that the modern world has resolved to a greater extent, it still appears to have considerable influence on the global environment. In many countries with ambitious economic growth targets the acceptable levels of air pollution have been transgressed. Serious respiratory disease related problems have been identified with both indoor and outdoor pollution throughout the world....

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  • Human beings need to breathe oxygen diluted in certain quantity of inert gas for living. In the atmosphere, there is a gas mixture of, mainly, oxygen and nitrogen, in appropriate proportions. However, the air also contains other gases, vapours and aerosols that humans incorporate when breathing and whose composition and concentration vary spatially. Some of these are physiologically inert. Air pollution has become a problem of major concern in the last few decades as it has caused negative effects on human health, nature and properties....

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  • Air pollution has always been a trans-boundary environmental problem and a matter of global concern for past many years. High concentrations of air pollutants due to numerous anthropogenic activities influence the air quality. There are many books on this subject, but the one in front of you will probably help in filling the gaps existing in the area of air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control, and can be of great help to graduate students professionals and researchers.

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  • The global environment is changing rapidly, partly in response to economic globalization. These global changes are clearly evident at the local level, even in the quality of air that people breath. In some high income countries air quality has been improving, due to a combination of de-industrialization, improved technologies and environmental regulation. However, advances in the science of epidemiology suggest that even air that would until recently have been considered ‘clean’ may contain pollutants that are hazardous to people’s health.

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  • Problems of indoor air quality are recognized as important risk factors for hu- man health in both low- and middle- and high-income countries. Indoor air is also important because people spend a substantial proportion of their time in buildings. In residences, day-care centres, retirement homes and other special environments, indoor air pollution affects population groups that are particu- larly vulnerable owing to their health status or age.

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  • The USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the forests of the U.S. FIA recently assumed responsibility for all former Forest Health Monitoring program (FHM) plot work on a national level, and is currently active in 32 states. Lichen community monitoring was included in FIA in order to address key assessment issues such as the impact of air pollution on forest resources, spatial and temporal trends in biodiversity, and the sustainability of timber harvesting.

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  • The major sources of indoor air pollution worldwide include indoor combustion of solid fuels, tobacco smoking, outdoor air pollutants, emissions from construction materials and furnishings, and improper maintenance of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Although some indoor air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, are of concern globally, profiles of indoor air pollutants and the resulting health risks are generally very different in developed and developing countries.

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  • Public transport. As an air quality strategy, a primary goal of a public transport intervention involves the targeting of service improvements and enhancements in corridors and for socio-economic groups that would otherwise be expected to adopt widespread car use. Since these groups tend to be more price- than time-sensitive, service enhancements are more effective than fare restraint or fare subsidies. For many jurisdictions, this strategy may conflict with another fundamental goal of public transport policy: providing low-cost transport services to the poor.

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  • Whereas U.S. cities have seen dramatic improvements in air quality over the last three decades1, Mexico City has been considerably less successful. Levels of major air pollutants in Mexico City routinely exceed maximum exposure limits established by the World Health Organization (WHO). For example, the WHO has warned that eight-hour average ozone levels exceeding 100 micrograms per cubic meter threaten human health. 2 During the period 1986-2005, this guideline was exceeded in Mexico City for 92% of all days. A large literature documents the social cost of air pollution (e.g.

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