This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....
The UK Government and devolved administrations are committed to delivering clean
air for a good quality of life. We have come a long way since the smogs of the 1950s. We
have achieved cleaner air through regulating emissions from industrial processes, progressively
tightening emissions and fuel standards for road vehicles and controlling smoke from domestic
premises. But there are still sometimes levels of pollution that can significantly harm human
health and the environment.
Problems of indoor air quality are recognized as important risk factors for hu-
man health in both low- and middle- and high-income countries. Indoor air is
also important because people spend a substantial proportion of their time in
buildings. In residences, day-care centres, retirement homes and other special
environments, indoor air pollution affects population groups that are particu-
larly vulnerable owing to their health status or age.
Public transport. As an air quality strategy, a primary goal of a public transport
intervention involves the targeting of service improvements and enhancements in corridors and
for socio-economic groups that would otherwise be expected to adopt widespread car use. Since
these groups tend to be more price- than time-sensitive, service enhancements are more effective
than fare restraint or fare subsidies. For many jurisdictions, this strategy may conflict with
another fundamental goal of public transport policy: providing low-cost transport services to the
China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.
WHO has a long tradition in synthesizing the evidence on health aspects of air
quality and in preparing air quality guidelines defining conditions for healthy air.
We are grateful to the outstanding scientists conducting this work. We hope that
these new guidelines will be useful globally to people assessing indoor air quality
with a view to predicting its effects on health, and also to those with responsibil-
ity for introducing measures to reduce health risks from indoor exposure to air
The major sources of indoor air pollution worldwide include indoor combustion of solid
fuels, tobacco smoking, outdoor air pollutants, emissions from construction materials and
furnishings, and improper maintenance of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Although
some indoor air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, are of concern globally,
profiles of indoor air pollutants and the resulting health risks are generally very different in
developed and developing countries.
Despite the flurry of media and political attention to air quality-induced illnesses and deaths, the
question still remains as to what will be the future air quality in Ontario and what are the health
consequences. Are more aggressive measures required to reduce the risk of poor air quality for
human health? What benefits would be realized now and in the future from improved air quality?
These are examples of pertinent environmental policy questions for which sound answers are
needed. This need has been recognized for many years by the OMA.
The available data does, however, suggest that present PM10 values exceed the recommended limit values
in the majority of Member States. In future projections, planned actions should be taken into
consideration. These include the SOx and NOx Protocols within UNECE and the Auto-Oil programme.
Abatement policies for other pollutants will also have an impact.
The first programmatic goal of the project is to provide additional and more
comprehensive information than is currently available to explain the nature and causes of
particulate concentrations and visibility impairment in and around Mexico City. This
information is needed to better understand the implications of currently planned emission
reduction strategies, and to focus future emissions reduction efforts in those areas where they
will have the greatest benefit on air quality for the least cost.
Critical loads, and other approaches that use models or empirical observations to link deposition with effects, provide tools that enable
resource managers and policymakers to evaluate tradeoffs between the costs of more stringent emissions controls and the benefits of
ecosystem services provided by healthy ecosystems.
A critical loads approach can be used to synthesize scientific knowledge about air pollution thresholds that cause adverse impacts
or ecosystem change.
It was the English poet W. H Auden who said many have
lived without love, none without water: A sentiment that
underlines the half way point of the new decade for action
under the simple but poignant theme ‘Water is Life’.
The challenge of water in the 21st century is one of both
quantity and quality. This publication is about the quality
dimension of that equation, highlighting the links between
clean water and public health and the health of the wider
The fact is that, often as a result of mismanagement,
much of the water that is available in developing but...
Mercury can exist in many different chemical and
physical forms in the environment (see Box 2). Those
different forms are called “species.” In this document,
we will use the general term “mercury” to refer to
all forms of the element, while “methylmercury”
will be used to distinguish organometallic mercury
compounds (essentially those that contain carbon)
from inorganic forms of mercury. Pure mercury is
known as elemental mercury or metallic mercury.
Sustainable urban development requires an integrated approach and the Thematic
Strategy advocates that national and regional authorities support municipalities in
achieving more integrated management at the local level. This approach is
supported by both of the Council and the European Parliament5.
Integrated approaches include long-term strategic visions and link different policies
at different administrative levels to ensure coherency.
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the largest city of Vietnam and the seventh city with the highest density of inhabitants in the world (3,300 persons by kilometer square) (HCMC Urban Drainage Company, 1998), is one of the cities in the world which are seriously influenced by pollution. The main sources of atmospheric pollution are vehicles (motorbikes), the industry and population.