Xem 1-20 trên 34 kết quả Air quality study
  • This book provides a comprehensive compilation of chapters in air quality modelling, monitoring, exposure, health and control. The book consists of two volumes. Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling and Health mainly consist of chapters describing pioneering research findings in air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure and health; Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling, Health and Control comprises research findings on air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control.

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  • This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài:Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS)-an international project

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  • The field of indoor air science is of growing interest and concern given that modern society spends the better part of each day indoors. Since the indoor air environment is a major, continual exposure medium for occupants, it is important to study what is present and if and how it affects the health and comfort of occupants.

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  • Paso del Norte’s growth has had serious environmental consequences, particularly for air quality, which is the worst on the U.S.–Mexico border. Ciudad Juárez exceeds national ambient air quality standards (official norms) for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), and El Paso exceeds national ambient air quality standards for ozone, PM10, and carbon monoxide. An overwhelming body of evidence links such air pollution to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and to premature mortality (U.S. EPA 1999).

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ) - the protocol of a new study

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  • The advance of chemicals in industry during the XX century gave rise to a number of highly aggressive compounds to human beings, and that altered the ecosystems balancing. Human population is inevitably exposed to environmental pollution through air-degraded products, water, the soil and food and their introduction into the food chain (Gomez et al, 2011). The use of pesticides has been recognized and accepted as an essential ingredient in the modern agriculture for the control of pests, which damage crops and as a result, they produce a severe loss in food production.

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  • The synthesis includes empirical data from on-going studies of the dehesa and grazing behavior and performance of Iberian pigs finished on acorns. The authors conclude that farmers conserve, prune and reforest oaks to maintain fruit production to feed and fatten Iberian pigs during the montanera or pannage, which result in conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services.

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  • Lichens have been used to study air pollution chemistry in national parks and forests since the 1980s (Figures 1 and 2). There have also been a few lichen studies on national wildlife refuges. Most of the studies have been floristic studies, reports of baseline concentrations of elements in lichen tissues and, occasionally, trends in these concentrations. Figure 1 shows park and refuge locations with tissue chemistry data. USGS Biological Resources Division maintains a web site listing lichens known from each of the national parks shown on the map (http://www.ies.wisc.

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  • Research, experiments and surveys on the flat bed dryer, focus on the cracks rice grains, and compare air reversal mode. The results show that, in both attack-8 scale production dryer and dryer in the laboratory 20 kg, the effects of air is reversed clearly to reduce the difference between the final moisture content, however, its effect on drying time or drying rate is not statistically significant. Mechanical drying, whether with or without reverse air, is superior to dry in the sun cracks down on rice.

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  • The European Union has developed the draft of a “Working document on sludge” (EU 2000), to promote the use of sewage sludge in agriculture while improving the safety and harmonize quality standards. It proposes limit values for concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds that should restrict the use of sewage sludge in agriculture if the limits are exceeded and provides suggestions for good practice in treatment and agricultural use.

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  • Under certain conditions, lichen floristic and community analyses can be used in conjunction with measured levels of ambient or depositional pollutants accumulated by lichens to detect effects of changing air quality on vegetation. This information can demonstrate whether air pollutants cause undesirable changes in species composition or presence/absence of lichen species within terrestrial plant communities. It is important that any alternative hypotheses (e.g.

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  • The residence time that contaminants and nutrients remain in lichen tissue differs among elements (Pucket 1985). Macronutrients, such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, magnesium and calcium are comparatively mobile and easily leached and therefore measurable changes in tissue concentrations can occur over weeks or months with seasonal changes in deposition (Boongaprob et al. 1989). In one study, mobile elements reached the same levels in transplants as the indigenous lichens within four to six months (Palomäki et al. 1992).

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  • The air pollution accumulating in the interior of automobiles consists almost exclusively of gaso- line and diesel exhaust. This toxic soup of gases, aerosols, and microscopic particles includes ben- zene (a known carcinogen), carbon monoxide (which interferes with the blood’s ability to trans- port oxygen), particulate matter (which studies have associated with increased death rates), and a host of other hazardous chemicals.

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  • The OMA recognized the need to explore not only the direct health effects of air pollution but also the need to understand the associated economic ramifications for the provincial health care system as well as for Ontario more generally. To this end, a feasibility study was undertaken, the purpose of which was to determine how best to develop appropriate estimates of the economic damages relating to air pollution-induced illnesses (42).

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  • This guidance document is intended to serve as a resource for national park, forest, and refuge staff when considering lichen studies to address air quality concerns. It provides background regarding the use of lichens as air pollution indicators, their sensitivities to various air pollutants, and the effects of air pollution on lichen physiology, communities, and tissue chemistry. It discusses the types of information and objectives that can optimize the utility of lichen studies from an air management and air regulatory perspective.

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  • While many studies have focused on estimating a relationship between pollution and health, they have largely neglected to consider that pollution exposure is endogenously determined if individuals make choices to maximize their well-being. People with high preferences for clean air may choose to live in areas with better air quality. People can respond to a wide range of readily available information on pollution levels by adjusting their exposure. Failing to appropriately account for such actions can yield misleading estimates of the causal effect of pollution on health. ...

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  • Recent re-analyses of time series studies have highlighted a second important epidemiological and statistical issue known as confounding bias. Pollution relative rate estimates for mortality= morbidity could be confounded by observed and unobserved time-varying confounders (such as weather variables, season, and in°uenza epidemics) that vary in a similar manner as the air pol- lution and mortality=morbidity time series. To control for confounding bias, smooth functions of time and temperature variables are included into the semi-parametric Poisson regression model....

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  • The critical role of the NMMAPS in the development of the air quality standards attracted intense scrutiny from the scientific community and industry groups regarding the statistical models that are used and the methods that are employed for adjusting for potential confound- ing. Confounding occurs when an attribute that is associated with an outcome is also associated with the exposure of interest but is not a result of the exposure. In time series studies, we are primarily concerned with potential confounding by factors that vary on similar timescales as pollution or mortality.

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  • Health scientists probably know more about the effects of ozone on human health than about any other pollutants. This is because ozone is pervasive in the environment. Also there are excellent methods of measuring ozone so the pollutant can be studied using epidemiological methods. The findings of these epidemiological studies can be verified using well-controlled laboratory studies with human volunteers and laboratory animals.

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