Lead-acid starter batteries are used in land, sea, and air vehicles. Batteries for vehicles are discussed in this chapter. The production of starter batteries approaches 60 million pieces. About 16 million pieces are used for motor vehicle production and about 38 million pieces keep the vehicles ready for operation as back-up batteries. A considerable number of imported and exported pieces play a part in this market. With these numbers Europe achieves about two-thirds of the U.S. production. ...
Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid
urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have
grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is
expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the
many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies
urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial
production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....
The UK Government and devolved administrations are committed to delivering clean
air for a good quality of life. We have come a long way since the smogs of the 1950s. We
have achieved cleaner air through regulating emissions from industrial processes, progressively
tightening emissions and fuel standards for road vehicles and controlling smoke from domestic
premises. But there are still sometimes levels of pollution that can significantly harm human
health and the environment.
This book contains 35 chapters written by experts in developing techniques for making aerial vehicles more intelligent, more reliable, more flexible in use, and safer in operation.It will also serve as an inspiration for further improvement of the design and application of aeral vehicles. The advanced techniques and research described here may also be applicable to other high-tech areas such as robotics, avionics, vetronics, and space.
China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.
Discussion Questions & Answers: Cf: F & O (2005) and F, O, & F (2002) Q1. Why should a tax on gasoline provide a larger incentive to reduce air emissions from motor vehicles than an annual tax on owning a vehicle? Answer: The answer depends upon the magnitude of the fuel tax relative to the vehicle tax. A fuel tax targets the three components of emission reduction (i.e. a) number of vehicles on the road; b) miles per vehicle; and c) emissions per mile). On the other hand, an annual tax affects only the marginal decisions to put a car...
• Means you may risk possible bodily harm Important: • Means you risk damage to the vehicle or the tool Notes: are added to provide clarity and helpful tips These safety messages cover situations SPX is aware of. SPX cannot know, evaluate and advise you as to all of the possible hazards. You must be certain that any conditions or service procedures encountered do not jeopardize your personal safety.
The municipal and industrial activities of the man affects human health, leads to
degradation of the environment and even degradation of the objects built by himself or
his predecessors. The pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere with off-gases from
industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles, some additional
emissions come from the natural sources as volcanoes as well. Fossil fuels, which include
coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat, electrical
energy and are the basic duels for the engines of the transport vehicles....
Internal combustion engines have experienced an enjoyed monopoly for almost a
century as power sources of road transport vehicles. But, in the same period, vehicle
ownership and mileages increased to a level that the resulting petroleum based fuel
consumption, urban air pollutants and green house gas emissions (the challenging
triad) have became great concern especially for past a few decades.
Fossil fuel combustion for transportation contributes to air pollution, and air pollution
degrades human health. However, the path from transportation to human health costs is anything
but straightforward. Which pollutants are produced in which proportions depend on a number of
factors, including the vehicle and fuel used and the driving conditions of a particular trip. These
emissions are dispersed into the ambient air according to atmospheric conditions, which also
influence the extent to which they react to form secondary pollutants.
The forces and moments the vehicle receives from the surrounding air depend more on the shape of the body than on the characteristics of the chassis. A detailed study of motor vehicle aerodynamics is thus beyond the scope of a book dealing with the automotive chassis. However, aerodynamic forces and moments have a large inﬂuence on the longitudinal performance of the vehicle, its handling and even its comfort, so it is not possible to neglect them altogether.
The usual approach of epidemiological studies is to measure the association between at
least one specific pollutant (e.g. PM, NOx, CO or O3) and health outcomes. These
specific components are usually highly correlated with other pollutants and are
considered indicative of the complex pollutant mixture. It is unclear how much the
associations reported in epidemiological studies represent the independent effects of
Because of improvements in air quality, such
deadly air pollution episodes are rare in U.S. cities.
Modern research methods have shown, however,
that deaths and serious illnesses from common
air pollutants still occur at levels well below
regulatory standards, and at current levels in
New York and most large cities. Local actions to
further reduce air pollution will mean changes in
policies and behaviors, and will require significant
investments in new vehicles and other equipment.
This Export Vehicle Application Guide covers the vehicles for which we supply a range of ARB manufactured products, including our bull bars. In most cases these applications are based on the vehicles as they are available in Australia. We suggest that this guide should be used in conjunction with the current Old Man Emu application catalogue and the current Air Locker application chart as these are the most accurate guides for suspension and Air Locker systems.
Public transport. As an air quality strategy, a primary goal of a public transport
intervention involves the targeting of service improvements and enhancements in corridors and
for socio-economic groups that would otherwise be expected to adopt widespread car use. Since
these groups tend to be more price- than time-sensitive, service enhancements are more effective
than fare restraint or fare subsidies. For many jurisdictions, this strategy may conflict with
another fundamental goal of public transport policy: providing low-cost transport services to the
In addition to affecting air quality and natural environmental degradation, transportation
can also play a key role in the degradation of urban environments. The delays and frustrations
caused by urban traffic congestion can reduce human productivity and quality of life, thus
possibly reducing the potential gross domestic or gross regional product. The noise produced by
various types of motor vehicles, as well as the excessive use of horns–a fact of life in cities in
many developing countries–raises the level of ambient noise, increases stress and reduces the
quality of life.
In 1989, the government of Mexico City introduced a program, Hoy No Circula, which bans
most drivers from using their vehicles one workday per week based on the last digit of the ve-
hicle’s license plate. The program has been strictly enforced and has been since emulated in
Bogota, Santiago and S˜ao Paolo. This paper measures the eﬀect of the driving restrictions on
air quality using high-frequency measures from monitoring stations. Across pollutants and spec-
iﬁcations there is no evidence that the program has improved air quality.
The movement of vehicles on the street also results in resuspension of road dust. Emissions also occur as
a result of tyre wear and brake lining wear. Although there is a lack of data, it is expected that most of
these particles will be in the size range 3 to some 30µm. The chemical composition of these particles may
also be very different from those derived from combustion.
The road dust deposit available for resuspension comes from mechanical wear of, and dirt on, vehicles
(incl. tyre and brake lining wear), debris from loads on vehicles, influx of soil material etc.
The action of the wind on dry loose soil surfaces leads to particles blowing into the air. Factors favouring
the suspension of soil dust particles into the atmosphere are an exposed dry surface of fine soil and a high
wind speed. In towns and cities, the areas of exposed soil, particularly in town centres, are rather small.
However, there are considerable quantities of dusts on road and pavement surfaces which arise from
ingress of soil on vehicle tyres and from the atmosphere, the erosion of the road surface itself and
degradation of parts of the vehicle, especially the tyres.
In contrast, the smaller or so-called "fine" particles in the urban aerosol come from
combustion sources, such as power plants, automobile, truck, bus and other vehicle
exhaust or from the reactions that transform some of the pollutant gases into solid or
liquid particles. These distinctions may be important because the current air pollution
health effects literature suggests, although not with certainty, that for some key health
effects the fine particles are more important than the coarse particles. These findings
have led EPA to propose a new nationwide PM2.