Xem 1-20 trên 69 kết quả Air vehicle
  • Lead-acid starter batteries are used in land, sea, and air vehicles. Batteries for vehicles are discussed in this chapter. The production of starter batteries approaches 60 million pieces. About 16 million pieces are used for motor vehicle production and about 38 million pieces keep the vehicles ready for operation as back-up batteries. A considerable number of imported and exported pieces play a part in this market. With these numbers Europe achieves about two-thirds of the U.S. production. ...

    pdf12p congdat261 08-11-2010 55 7   Download

  • Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....

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  • The UK Government and devolved administrations are committed to delivering clean air for a good quality of life. We have come a long way since the smogs of the 1950s. We have achieved cleaner air through regulating emissions from industrial processes, progressively tightening emissions and fuel standards for road vehicles and controlling smoke from domestic premises. But there are still sometimes levels of pollution that can significantly harm human health and the environment.

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  • This book contains 35 chapters written by experts in developing techniques for making aerial vehicles more intelligent, more reliable, more flexible in use, and safer in operation.It will also serve as an inspiration for further improvement of the design and application of aeral vehicles. The advanced techniques and research described here may also be applicable to other high-tech areas such as robotics, avionics, vetronics, and space.

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  • China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.

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  • Discussion Questions & Answers: Cf: F & O (2005) and F, O, & F (2002) Q1. Why should a tax on gasoline provide a larger incentive to reduce air emissions from motor vehicles than an annual tax on owning a vehicle? Answer: The answer depends upon the magnitude of the fuel tax relative to the vehicle tax. A fuel tax targets the three components of emission reduction (i.e. a) number of vehicles on the road; b) miles per vehicle; and c) emissions per mile). On the other hand, an annual tax affects only the marginal decisions to put a car...

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  • • Means you may risk possible bodily harm Important: • Means you risk damage to the vehicle or the tool Notes: are added to provide clarity and helpful tips These safety messages cover situations SPX is aware of. SPX cannot know, evaluate and advise you as to all of the possible hazards. You must be certain that any conditions or service procedures encountered do not jeopardize your personal safety.

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  • The municipal and industrial activities of the man affects human health, leads to degradation of the environment and even degradation of the objects built by himself or his predecessors. The pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere with off-gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles, some additional emissions come from the natural sources as volcanoes as well. Fossil fuels, which include coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat, electrical energy and are the basic duels for the engines of the transport vehicles....

    pdf264p ktcn_1 10-07-2012 43 16   Download

  • Internal combustion engines have experienced an enjoyed monopoly for almost a century as power sources of road transport vehicles. But, in the same period, vehicle ownership and mileages increased to a level that the resulting petroleum based fuel consumption, urban air pollutants and green house gas emissions (the challenging triad) have became great concern especially for past a few decades.

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  • Fossil fuel combustion for transportation contributes to air pollution, and air pollution degrades human health. However, the path from transportation to human health costs is anything but straightforward. Which pollutants are produced in which proportions depend on a number of factors, including the vehicle and fuel used and the driving conditions of a particular trip. These emissions are dispersed into the ambient air according to atmospheric conditions, which also influence the extent to which they react to form secondary pollutants.

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  • The forces and moments the vehicle receives from the surrounding air depend more on the shape of the body than on the characteristics of the chassis. A detailed study of motor vehicle aerodynamics is thus beyond the scope of a book dealing with the automotive chassis. However, aerodynamic forces and moments have a large influence on the longitudinal performance of the vehicle, its handling and even its comfort, so it is not possible to neglect them altogether.

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  • The usual approach of epidemiological studies is to measure the association between at least one specific pollutant (e.g. PM, NOx, CO or O3) and health outcomes. These specific components are usually highly correlated with other pollutants and are considered indicative of the complex pollutant mixture. It is unclear how much the associations reported in epidemiological studies represent the independent effects of specific pollutants.

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  • Because of improvements in air quality, such deadly air pollution episodes are rare in U.S. cities. Modern research methods have shown, however, that deaths and serious illnesses from common air pollutants still occur at levels well below regulatory standards, and at current levels in New York and most large cities. Local actions to further reduce air pollution will mean changes in policies and behaviors, and will require significant investments in new vehicles and other equipment.

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  • This Export Vehicle Application Guide covers the vehicles for which we supply a range of ARB manufactured products, including our bull bars. In most cases these applications are based on the vehicles as they are available in Australia. We suggest that this guide should be used in conjunction with the current Old Man Emu application catalogue and the current Air Locker application chart as these are the most accurate guides for suspension and Air Locker systems.

    pdf91p tieulac 26-11-2010 46 4   Download

  • Public transport. As an air quality strategy, a primary goal of a public transport intervention involves the targeting of service improvements and enhancements in corridors and for socio-economic groups that would otherwise be expected to adopt widespread car use. Since these groups tend to be more price- than time-sensitive, service enhancements are more effective than fare restraint or fare subsidies. For many jurisdictions, this strategy may conflict with another fundamental goal of public transport policy: providing low-cost transport services to the poor.

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  • In addition to affecting air quality and natural environmental degradation, transportation can also play a key role in the degradation of urban environments. The delays and frustrations caused by urban traffic congestion can reduce human productivity and quality of life, thus possibly reducing the potential gross domestic or gross regional product. The noise produced by various types of motor vehicles, as well as the excessive use of horns–a fact of life in cities in many developing countries–raises the level of ambient noise, increases stress and reduces the quality of life.

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  • In 1989, the government of Mexico City introduced a program, Hoy No Circula, which bans most drivers from using their vehicles one workday per week based on the last digit of the ve- hicle’s license plate. The program has been strictly enforced and has been since emulated in Bogota, Santiago and S˜ao Paolo. This paper measures the effect of the driving restrictions on air quality using high-frequency measures from monitoring stations. Across pollutants and spec- ifications there is no evidence that the program has improved air quality.

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  • The movement of vehicles on the street also results in resuspension of road dust. Emissions also occur as a result of tyre wear and brake lining wear. Although there is a lack of data, it is expected that most of these particles will be in the size range 3 to some 30µm. The chemical composition of these particles may also be very different from those derived from combustion. The road dust deposit available for resuspension comes from mechanical wear of, and dirt on, vehicles (incl. tyre and brake lining wear), debris from loads on vehicles, influx of soil material etc.

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  • The action of the wind on dry loose soil surfaces leads to particles blowing into the air. Factors favouring the suspension of soil dust particles into the atmosphere are an exposed dry surface of fine soil and a high wind speed. In towns and cities, the areas of exposed soil, particularly in town centres, are rather small. However, there are considerable quantities of dusts on road and pavement surfaces which arise from ingress of soil on vehicle tyres and from the atmosphere, the erosion of the road surface itself and degradation of parts of the vehicle, especially the tyres.

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  • The Army’s strategic vision calls for transformation to a full-spectrum Objective Force that can project overwhelming military power anywhere in the world on extremely short notice. It must be agile, versatile, and lethal, achieving its objectives through the application of dominant maneuver, precision engagement, focused logistics, information superiority, and highly survivable combat systems.

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