There are a wide range of problems that are considered psychological
disorders, including mental and emotional disorders, problems
related to alcohol and drug abuse, and some diseases that cause both
emotional and physical symptoms. Psychological disorders often begin in
early childhood, but during adolescence we see a sharp increase in the
number of people affected by these disorders. It has been estimated that
about 20 percent of the U.S. population will have some form of mental
disorder sometime during their lifetime. Some psychological disorders
appear following severe stress or trauma.
Drug and alcohol abuse by people with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) is one of
the most signifi cant problems facing the public mental health system. Referred to variously as
people with dual disorders or dual diagnosis, mentally ill chemical abusers, and individuals
with co-occurring psychiatric and substance disorders, these patients pose major problems
for themselves, their families, clinicians, and the mental health system.
This volume brings together five chapters from Disease
Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition (DCP2
Jamison and others 2006). These chapters cover mental disorders,
neurological disorders, learning and developmental
disabilities, and alcohol and illicit opiate abuse. The purpose
of this special package is similar to the overall objective of the
parent volume - to provide information on cost-effectiveness
of interventions for these specific groups of disorders.
Head and Neck Cancer: Treatment Patients with head and neck cancer can be categorized into three clinical groups: those with localized disease, those with locally or regionally advanced disease, and those with recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Comorbidities associated with tobacco and alcohol abuse can affect treatment outcome and define long-term risks for patients who are cured of their disease.
Nearly one-third of patients have localized disease; that is, T1 or T2 (stage I or stage II) lesions without detectable lymph node involvement or distant metastases.
In resolution WHA63.14, the World Health Assembly
urges Member States to identify the most suitable policy
approach given national circumstances, and to develop
new policies or strengthen those existing that aim to
reduce the impact on children of marketing of foods high
in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars, or salt.
This section proposes steps that may facilitate the policy
development process. Firstly, it is advisable for Member
States to seek consensus across government on the need
for policy development.
Male Sexual Dysfunction: Treatment
Patient Education Patient and partner education is essential in the treatment of ED. In goaldirected therapy, education facilitates understanding of the disease, results of the tests, and selection of treatment. Discussion of treatment options helps to clarify how treatment is best offered and stratify first- and second-line therapies. Patients with high-risk lifestyle issues, such as smoking, alcohol abuse, or recreational drug use, should be counseled on the role these factors play in the development of ED.
At the start of the 21st century, the learning potential of significant numbers of children
and young people in every country in the world is compromised. Hunger, malnutrition,
micronutrient deficiencies, parasite infections, drug and alcohol abuse, violence and injury,
early and unintended pregnancy, and infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted
infections threaten the health and lives of children and youth (UNESCO, 2001). Yet these
conditions and behaviours can be improved.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Alcohol use and abuse in training conscripts of the Hellenic navy...
NEUROLOGIC DISEASE IN WOMEN
insomnia, and anxiety. Less than half of these cases are correctly identified as alcohol-related. Women are also more likely to be admitted to non–alcohol-specific treatment, such as general psychiatric units rather than conventional alcohol treatment services (81) and are more likely to drop out of treatment (85). Because female alcoholics often have low self-esteem and feelings of shame and embarrassment, they may balk at confrontational techniques and require more supportive and skill-building approaches.
This book investigates whether or not there is a causal link between personality traits and the development of alcohol abuse. Findings suggest that there is such a link: people who are inclined toward sensation-seeking are likely to consume more alcohol, and those who show high levels of psychotic and/or antisocial behavior are more inclined to have alcohol problems. The authors successfully develop and validate a measure of the Addiction-Prone Personality.
The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is historically anchored in South
Africa’s Western Cape province, and long precedes the HIV
epidemic. This is despite the generally better socio-economic
status of the population and greater overall healthcare expenditure
in this region than in other provinces. Contributing factors include
overcrowding, alcohol abuse, poverty, and administrative neglect
of the National TB Programme (NTP).1 This traditional ‘Cape’
epidemic is now being significantly augmented by an HIVassociated
Substance abuse has long been an issue of concern for the U.S. population and for its military in
particular. Dating as far back as the Revolutionary War, Dr. Benjamin Rush detailed the effects of alcohol
on the troops. During the Civil War, addiction to opium prescribed for pain became known as the
“soldier’s disease.” Drug problems in both the military and civilian sectors have intensified throughout
the 20th century as the types and formulations of substances being used have increased.
Advice from the Health Education Board for Scotland (now NHS Health Scotland) is that light,
occasional drinking during pregnancy (one or two units once or twice a week) is not likely to do
any harm.78 Heavy drinking is associated with miscarriage, and sometimes with serious effects
on the babys development.78 Some authorities recommend complete abstinence during
pregnancy (the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism:
Two studies have been identified which looked at brief interventions in the antenatal setting.
Most of the people I meet in my work perceive themselves as not capable of
much. Some don’t even particularly like themselves. I know how they feel. As a
young man I felt the same, and it nearly destroyed me before I acquired the
confidence to become a teacher, therapist and organiser of personal development
and complementary therapy courses.
Prison policies often overlook the special needs of women and their health. Many women in
prison have high levels of mental illness and drug or alcohol dependence as well as histories of
sexual and physical abuse and violence. Issues arising from gender-specific health care needs
and family responsibilities are also frequently neglected. Although women represent a small
percentage of the total prison population, their numbers are increasing and the rate of increase is
much greater than that of men.
The Changing World of Advertising and Promotion
Nearly everyone in the modern world is influenced to some degree by advertising and other forms of promotion. Organizations in both the private and public sectors have learned that the ability to communicate effectively and efficiently with their target audiences is critical to their success. Advertising and other types of promotional messages are used to sell products and services as well as to promote causes, market political candidates, and deal with societal problems such as alcohol and drug abuse.
Early researchers in the field played down individual
personality disturbances as causal agents of
family violence in favour of social and cultural
factors (27). More recently, though, research on
family violence has shown that abusers who are
physically aggressive are more likely to have
personality disorders and alcohol-related problems
than the general population (28).
In DWI/DUI cases involving child passengers or victims, traffic prosecutors should consider the
applicability of generic child endangerment or abuse statutes. In People v. Cruz, 576 N.Y.S. 978
(N.Y. Criminal Ct. 1991), the defendant drove his car with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)
of .18 grams per deciliter with his two children in the car. The court recognized the inherent
dangers of impaired driving and held that there was sufficient evidence to find the defendant
guilty of endangering the welfare of a child. Similarly, in State v. Miller, 1995 Ohio App.
The health status of prisoners is generally much poorer than that of the general population, and
women’s health needs can be seriously neglected in a male-dominated prison system. Many
women in prison have a background of physical and sexual abuse and of alcohol and drug
dependence. Many did not receive adequate health care before incarceration. Women in prison
generally have more mental health problems than women in the general population. This
frequently stems from prior victimization.
According to the focus group study in South
Africa mentioned earlier, much of the abuse – and
particularly domestic violence – occurred as a result
of social disorder, exacerbated by crime, alcohol
and drugs. Similar conclusions came from an
exercise conducted by seven male community
leaders of the Tamaho squatter camp in Katlehong,
South Africa (15).