Substance abuse has long been an issue of concern for the U.S. population and for its military in
particular. Dating as far back as the Revolutionary War, Dr. Benjamin Rush detailed the effects of alcohol
on the troops. During the Civil War, addiction to opium prescribed for pain became known as the
“soldier’s disease.” Drug problems in both the military and civilian sectors have intensified throughout
the 20th century as the types and formulations of substances being used have increased.
Probably the major ultimate use of outcome management is program improvement.
The data provide the starting point for identifying problems, such as the information
broken out by key client and service characteristics. The analysis can identify
which particular client groups, which particular offices, or which particular caseworkers
or clinicians are doing well, or not well. This starts off the dialogue about
where problems exist, or about major accomplishments achieved.
Each year, $100 billion is spent on pain care, yet 40% of Americans experience daily pain, including 50
million people with chronic pain and 25 million people with acute pain. The prevalence of pain has a
tremendous impact on business, with an estimated annual cost of $60 billion plus in lost productivity.
Despite advances in the treatment of pain, the quality of pain care remains far below the potential for
optimal care, and ineffective pain treatment continues to be a growing problem in the United States.
The nonmedical use of drugs presents social problems with important pharmacological aspects. Social aspects Rewards for the individual Decriminalisation and legalisation Dependence Drugs and sport Tobacco Dependence Nicotine pharmacology Effects of chronic smoking Starting and stopping use Passive smoking Ethyl alcohol Pharmacology Car driving and alcohol Chronic consumption Withdrawal Pregnancy Pharmacological deterrence Psychodysleptics • Experiences with psychodysleptics • Individual substances, especially cannabis Stimulants • cocaine, • amfetamines.
Cigarette smokers were 2.7 times more likely to have
respiratory diseases than those of non-smokers. Similarly
consumption of alcohol and use of non-smoked tobacco
were found to be risk factors of hypertension.
BMI more than 25 was risk factor for hypertension
and diabetes. On the other hand risk of respiratory
diseases and cataract increased below a BMI of 18.5.
Risk for musculoskeletal problems was found to be
higher in both extremes of physical status. The higher
risk of diseases to the both extremes of BMI suggests a U-
shaped relationship of diseases with BMI. BMI less 18.
The above three
approaches are used for the valuation of land as a site for the construction of a
particular building at the current time. Which approach is more applicable is
problem-specific. For example, in a situation where the purchase of real estate
is for investment, the income approach seems more suitable, whereas for
individual use, the sales comparison approach is more acceptable. Another
way for the valuation of land is to consider a vacant piece of land as a
potential site for development in the future so that it is viewed as an option for
purchasing one of...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: The influence of behavioural and health problems on alcohol and drug use in late adolescence - a follow up study of 2 399 young Norwegians...
Health literacy is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” It represents a constellation of skills necessary for people to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information. These skills include the ability to interpret documents, read and write prose (print literacy), use quantitative information (numeracy), and speak and listen effectively (oral literacy).
Like metals, plastics can also be recycled but it is important that plastic parts can be easily
removed from the furniture and their type identified.
Therefore, the environmental criteria for plastics should focus on the limitation of certain
additives in plastic production and the marking of plastic parts for their easy disassembly for
As with metal, the use of recycled plastic should be encouraged, to reduce production-related
impacts, as well as the use of renewable resources....
We test three hypotheses concerning the impact of loan market competition on euro area banks’ loan
and deposit rates. First, we examine the effect of loan market competition on the level on bank loan
and deposit rates; second, using a panel error-correction model (ECM) we estimate the effect of loan
market competition on the long-run equilibrium pass-through of bank interest rates to changes in
corresponding market interest rates; third, we also test the impact of competition in the loan market on
the immediate adjustment of bank interest rates to changes in market interest rates....
This experiment examines a human Alu dimorphism at the PV92 locus. A
sample of human cells is obtained by saline mouthwash (alternatively
DNA may be isolated from hair sheaths). DNA is extracted by boiling with
Chelex® resin, which binds contaminating metal ions. Polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) is then used to amplify a chromosome region that contains
the PV92 Alu dimorphism. The Alu insertion allele (+) is 300 nucleotides
longer than the non-insertion allele (–), so the two alleles are readily
separated by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Although America provides some of the world’s best health care
and spent over $2.5 trillion for health in 2009, the U.S. still
ranks below many countries in life expectancy, infant mortality,
and many other indicators of healthy life.
1 Most of our nation’s
pressing health problems can be prevented. Eating healthfully
and engaging in regular physical activity, avoiding tobacco,
excessive alcohol use, and other drug abuse, using seat belts, an
receiving preventive services and vaccinations are just a few of
the ways people can stay healthy.
There is a large volume of good quality evidence indicating that appropriate screening helps the
detection and treatment of alcohol problems (see Annex 2 for a list of alerts). This evidence has
consistently shown that screening using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)
is effective within primary care, A&E, pre- and antenatal settings.
The Changing World of Advertising and Promotion
Nearly everyone in the modern world is influenced to some degree by advertising and other forms of promotion. Organizations in both the private and public sectors have learned that the ability to communicate effectively and efficiently with their target audiences is critical to their success. Advertising and other types of promotional messages are used to sell products and services as well as to promote causes, market political candidates, and deal with societal problems such as alcohol and drug abuse.
Drinking and driving: It doesn’t take much alcohol to impair a person’s
ability to drive. The chances of being killed in a single-vehicle crash
are increased at a blood alcohol level that a 140-lb. woman would
reach after having one drink on an empty stomach.
Medication interactions: Alcohol can interact with a wide variety of
medicines, both prescription and over-the-counter. Alcohol can
reduce the effectiveness of some medications, and it can combine
with other medications to cause or increase side effects.
Prescribed medication taken in conjunction with alcohol can cause adverse side effects
and generally, older people are advised not to drink when they are taking other drugs.
Problems caused by using alcohol and other drugs concurrently may include a diminished
effect of the drugs in an individual who drinks regularly and the increased sensitivity to
drugs conferred by malnutrition and severe liver damage, for example cirrhosis. Alcohol in
moderate amounts can depress the rate of drug metabolism so that the action of some
drugs is exaggerated, such as benzodiazipines.
Drugs use affects all school communities in New Zealand. It is associated with
health risks, including injury, problem behaviours, depression and other risk-
taking activities, and affects students’ welfare and safety, social relationships and
identities, and their ability to learn and achieve their full potential.
Problems arising from drug use among young New Zealanders are primarily
associated with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis.
This report, which is written for all who are concerned about the dangers posed by the
harmful use of alcohol, can serve as a comprehensive knowledge base on the status
of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and alcohol policies in the world. Health
ministries and other concerned parties can use it to support the development and
implementation of their policies and interventions.
Since 1974, WHO has been actively involved in documenting and reporting on alcohol-
related health issues and problems.
This report provides comparable global information on: the consumption of alcohol
(Section 1); the consequences of the harmful use of alcohol (Section 2); and the policy
responses (Section 3). The four appendices include: country proﬁ les for all 193 WHO
Member States (Appendix I); a set of additional indicators (Appendix II); a table of
comparable alcohol consumption data (Appendix III); and a section explaining data sources
and methods used in this report (Appendix IV).
Yet, despite all these problems, the harmful use of alcohol remains a low priority in public
policy, including in health policy. Many lesser health risks have higher priority.
The harmful use of alcohol is a particularly grave threat to men. It is the leading risk
factor for death in males ages 15–59, mainly due to injuries, violence and cardiovascular
diseases. Globally, 6.2% of all male deaths are attributable to alcohol, compared to 1.1%
of female deaths. Men also have far greater rates of total burden attributed to alcohol
than women – 7.4% for men compared to 1.4% for women.