In this paper, we explore the power of randomized algorithm to address the challenge of working with very large amounts of data. We apply these algorithms to generate noun similarity lists from 70 million pages. We reduce the running time from quadratic to practically linear in the number of elements to be computed.
Central to this book are two ideas. The first is that Fluid Mechanics is relevant to a
wide variety of problems that are priorities in the early 21st
century, three of which are
health, the environment, and energy. The second idea is that researchers in this field
are applying novel methods to address these problems. Even on its most basic level,
Fluid Mechanics is challenging.
There are many distinct pleasures associated with computer programming. Craftsmanship
has its quiet rewards, the satisfaction that comes from building a useful object and
making it work. Excitement arrives with the flash of insight that cracks a previously
intractable problem. The spiritual quest for elegance can turn the hacker into an artist.
There are pleasures in parsimony, in squeezing the last drop of performance out of clever
algorithms and tight coding.
As robots move from the factory and into the daily lives of men, women, and children
around the world, it is becoming increasingly clear that the skills they will require are vastly
different from the majority of skills with which they were programmed in the 20th century.
In fact, it would appear that many of these skills will center on the challenge of interacting
with humans, rather than with machine parts or other robots.
One of the main challenges that modern Information Systems are dealing with is the
protection of security for both the external users that take advantage of the various
services offered as well as the stakeholders and internal users. Security is dealt in
every level of system development from the analysis stage through the
implementation and testing stages. In every stage a number of methods and
techniques have been proposed trying to fulfill the basic security concerns namely
confidentiality, integrity and availability....
This book represents a sample of recent contributions of researchers all around the
world in the field of image restoration.
The book consists of 15 chapters organized in three main sections (Theory, Applications,
Interdisciplinarity). Topics cover some different aspects of the theory of image
restoration. But this book is also an occasion to highlight some new topics of research
related to the emergence of some original imaging devices (see “Applications”
The book addresses some of the most recent issues, with the theoretical and methodological aspects, of evolutionary multi-objective optimization problems and the various design challenges using different hybrid intelligent approaches. Multi-objective optimization has been available for about two decades, and its application in real-world problems is continuously increasing.
Abstract.The proliferation of new modes of communication and collaboration
has resulted in an explosion of digital information. To turn this challenge into
an opportunity, the IT industry will have to develop novel ways to acquire, store,
process, and deliver information to customers - wherever, however, and whenever
they need it. An ”Intelligent IT Infrastructure,” which can deliver extremely high
performance, adaptability and security - will be the backbone of these develop
Visual compression has been a very active field of research and development for over
20 years, leading to many different compression systems and to the definition of
international standards. There is likely to be a continued need for better compression
efficiency, as video content becomes increasingly ubiquitous and places
unprecedented pressure on upcoming new applications in the future. At the same
time, the challenge of handling ever more diverse content coded in a wide variety of
formats makes reconfigurable coding a potentially useful prospect....
The CIME-EMS Summer School in applied mathematics on “Multiscale and
Adaptivity:Modeling, Numerics and Applications” was held in Cetraro (Italy) from
July 6 to 11, 2009. This course has focused on mathematical methods for systems
that involve multiple length/time scales and multiple physics. The complexity of
the structure of these systems requires suitable mathematical and computational
tools. In addition, mathematics provides an effective approach toward devising
computational strategies for handling multiple scales and multiple physics.
Generally speaking, direct assembly
coding can outperform the use of intrinsics. Nevertheless,
for fairness of comparison with algorithms coded in C,we
use the provided intrinsics.
Our experimental results use single precision 32-bit ﬂoat-
ing point values as the element data type, unless otherwise
mentioned. Since SSE and SSE2 registers are 128 bits, this
choice means that S = 4. Our Pentium4 machine runs at 1.8
GHz, has 1GB of Rambus RDRAM, and uses the RedHat
Linux 7.1 operating system. We use Intel's C++ compiler
with the highest optimization level.
Although the vision of P2P systems is grand, the technical challenges associated with them are immense, and as a
result the realization of the vision has been elusive. Because the membership in the system is ad-hoc and dynamic, it is
very difﬁcult to predict or reason about the location and quality of the system’s resources. For example, the placement
of data in content-sharing systems is often na¨ ıve: data placement is largely demand driven, with little regard given to
network bandwidth, load, or historical trustworthiness of the peer on which the data is placed.
A response of the engineering profession to the challenges of security, poverty and
under-development, and environmental sustainability is described. Ethical codes,
which govern the behavior of engineers, are examined from a historical perspective
linking the prevailing codes to models of the natural world. A new ethical code based
on a recently introduced model of Nature as an integral community is provided and
discussed. Applications of the new code are described using a case study approach.
This report serves as a background document for the policy brief on social and gender inequalities in
environment and health that was prepared for the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and
Health (Parma, Italy, 10–12 March 2010). It provides an overview of the currently available evidence
on the influences and effects of social and gender inequalities on environmental health risks.
In recent years the subject of computer programming has been recognized as a discipline whose mastery
is fundamental and crucial to the success of many engineering projects and which is amenable to
scientific treatement and presentation. It has advanced from a craft to an academic discipline. The initial
outstanding contributions toward this development were made by E.W. Dijkstra and C.A.R. Hoare.
Optimization has become pervasive in medicine. The application of computing
to medical applications has opened many challenging issues and problems for
both the medical computing field and the mathematical community. Mathematical
techniques (continuous and discrete) are playing a key role with
increasing importance in understanding several fundamental problems in
medicine. Naturally, optimization is a fundamentally important tool due to the
limitation of the resources involved and the need for better decision making....
The theme of Medinfo2007 is “Building Sustainable Health Systems”. Particular foci are health
challenges for the developing and developed world, the social and political context of health care, the
knowledge that is needed for safe and effective health care, and the difficult task of building and
maintaining complex health information systems. Sustainable health information systems are those that
can meet today’s needs without compromising the needs of future generations. It is a challenge and an
opportunity to develop and implement systems that can be improved – not replaced.
The study that led to this report was called for in the President’s Fiscal Year 2006 Budget. In accordance
with that call, the study was commissioned by the National Coordination Office (NCO) for
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD), which supports the
NITRD Subcommittee, which operates under the White House National Science and Technology Council
to coordinate federal investments in networking and information technology research and development.
It is very difficult to determine what are the most popular of modern programming languages. Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications (e.g., COBOL is still strong in the corporate data center, often on large mainframes, FORTRAN in engineering applications, scripting languages in Web development, and C in embedded applications), while some languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications. Also many applications use a mix of several languages in their construction and use.