Aligning

Xem 1-20 trên 689 kết quả Aligning
  • Often, there is a need to use the knowledge from multiple ontologies. This is particularly the case within the context of medical imaging, where a single ontology is not enough to provide the complementary knowledge about anatomy, radiology and diseases that is required by the related applications. Consequently, semantic integration of these different but related types of medical knowledge that is present in disparate domain ontologies becomes necessary. Medical ontology alignment addresses this need by identifying the semantically equivalent concepts across multiple medical ontologies. ...

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  • In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.[1] Aligned sequences of nucleotide or amino acid residues are typically represented as rows within a matrix. Gaps are inserted between the residues so that identical or similar characters are aligned in successive columns.

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  • This paper describes an unsupervised dynamic graphical model for morphological segmentation and bilingual morpheme alignment for statistical machine translation. The model extends Hidden Semi-Markov chain models by using factored output nodes and special structures for its conditional probability distributions. It relies on morpho-syntactic and lexical source-side information (part-of-speech, morphological segmentation) while learning a morpheme segmentation over the target language. Our model outperforms a competitive word alignment system in alignment quality. ...

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  • This work investigates supervised word alignment methods that exploit inversion transduction grammar (ITG) constraints. We consider maximum margin and conditional likelihood objectives, including the presentation of a new normal form grammar for canonicalizing derivations. Even for non-ITG sentence pairs, we show that it is possible learn ITG alignment models by simple relaxations of structured discriminative learning objectives. For efficiency, we describe a set of pruning techniques that together allow us to align sentences two orders of magnitude faster than naive bitext CKY parsing.

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  • In this paper we present a confidence measure for word alignment based on the posterior probability of alignment links. We introduce sentence alignment confidence measure and alignment link confidence measure. Based on these measures, we improve the alignment quality by selecting high confidence sentence alignments and alignment links from multiple word alignments of the same sentence pair.

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  • Inspired by the incremental TER alignment, we re-designed the Indirect HMM (IHMM) alignment, which is one of the best hypothesis alignment methods for conventional MT system combination, in an incremental manner. One crucial problem of incremental alignment is to align a hypothesis to a confusion network (CN).

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  • We present a novel method to improve word alignment quality and eventually the translation performance by producing and combining complementary word alignments for low-resource languages. Instead of focusing on the improvement of a single set of word alignments, we generate multiple sets of diversified alignments based on different motivations, such as linguistic knowledge, morphology and heuristics.

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  • Semi-supervised word alignment aims to improve the accuracy of automatic word alignment by incorporating full or partial manual alignments. Motivated by standard active learning query sampling frameworks like uncertainty-, margin- and query-by-committee sampling we propose multiple query strategies for the alignment link selection task. Our experiments show that by active selection of uncertain and informative links, we reduce the overall manual effort involved in elicitation of alignment link data for training a semisupervised word aligner. ...

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  • We propose a principled and efficient phraseto-phrase alignment model, useful in machine translation as well as other related natural language processing problems. In a hidden semiMarkov model, word-to-phrase and phraseto-word translations are modeled directly by the system. Agreement between two directional models encourages the selection of parsimonious phrasal alignments, avoiding the overfitting commonly encountered in unsupervised training with multi-word units.

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  • We present a first known result of high precision rare word bilingual extraction from comparable corpora, using aligned comparable documents and supervised classification. We incorporate two features, a context-vector similarity and a co-occurrence model between words in aligned documents in a machine learning approach. We test our hypothesis on different pairs of languages and corpora.

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  • We cast the word alignment problem as maximizing a submodular function under matroid constraints. Our framework is able to express complex interactions between alignment components while remaining computationally efficient, thanks to the power and generality of submodular functions. We show that submodularity naturally arises when modeling word fertility. Experiments on the English-French Hansards alignment task show that our approach achieves lower alignment error rates compared to conventional matching based approaches. ...

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  • Word alignment has an exponentially large search space, which often makes exact inference infeasible. Recent studies have shown that inversion transduction grammars are reasonable constraints for word alignment, and that the constrained space could be efficiently searched using synchronous parsing algorithms. However, spurious ambiguity may occur in synchronous parsing and cause problems in both search efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we conduct a detailed study of the causes of spurious ambiguity and how it effects parsing and discriminative learning. ...

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  • In this paper, we present a novel way of tackling the monolingual alignment problem on pairs of sentential paraphrases by means of edit rate computation. In order to inform the edit rate, information in the form of subsentential paraphrases is provided by a range of techniques built for different purposes. We show that the tunable TER-PLUS metric from Machine Translation evaluation can achieve good performance on this task and that it can effectively exploit information coming from complementary sources. ...

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  • The tree sequence based translation model allows the violation of syntactic boundaries in a rule to capture non-syntactic phrases, where a tree sequence is a contiguous sequence of subtrees. This paper goes further to present a translation model based on non-contiguous tree sequence alignment, where a non-contiguous tree sequence is a sequence of sub-trees and gaps. Compared with the contiguous tree sequencebased model, the proposed model can well handle non-contiguous phrases with any large gaps by means of non-contiguous tree sequence alignment. ...

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  • Recently confusion network decoding shows the best performance in combining outputs from multiple machine translation (MT) systems. However, overcoming different word orders presented in multiple MT systems during hypothesis alignment still remains the biggest challenge to confusion network-based MT system combination. In this paper, we compare four commonly used word alignment methods, namely GIZA++, TER, CLA and IHMM, for hypothesis alignment.

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  • We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignmentbased features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efficiently finds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or nonoverlapping flat coordinations into account. ...

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  • This paper presents a new web mining scheme for parallel data acquisition. Based on the Document Object Model (DOM), a web page is represented as a DOM tree. Then a DOM tree alignment model is proposed to identify the translationally equivalent texts and hyperlinks between two parallel DOM trees. By tracing the identified parallel hyperlinks, parallel web documents are recursively mined. Compared with previous mining schemes, the benchmarks show that this new mining scheme improves the mining coverage, reduces mining bandwidth, and enhances the quality of mined parallel sentences.

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  • We present a version of Inversion Transduction Grammar where rule probabilities are lexicalized throughout the synchronous parse tree, along with pruning techniques for efficient training. Alignment results improve over unlexicalized ITG on short sentences for which full EM is feasible, but pruning seems to have a negative impact on longer sentences.

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  • We investigate a number of simple methods for improving the word-alignment accuracy of IBM Model 1. We demonstrate reduction in alignment error rate of approximately 30% resulting from (1) giving extra weight to the probability of alignment to the null word, (2) smoothing probability estimates for rare words, and (3) using a simple heuristic estimation method to initialize, or replace, EM training of model parameters.

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  • We augment a model of translation based on re-ordering nodes in syntactic trees in order to allow alignments not conforming to the original tree structure, while keeping computational complexity polynomial in the sentence length. This is done by adding a new subtree cloning operation to either tree-to-string or tree-to-tree alignment algorithms.

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