In 1995, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and
National Research Council issued a report entitled Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, which
recommended tracking federal investments in the creation of new knowledge and technologies—what the report
referred to as the federal science and technology budget (FS&T).
.The research described in this report was sponsored by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA). The research was conducted jointly by RAND Health’s Center for Military Health Policy Research and the Forces and Resources Policy Center of RAND’s National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center supported by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, the unified commands, and the defense agencies under Contract DASW01-01-C-0004.
The GOI’s desire to achieve the MDGs is at the heart of its health programming. Health is identified as a priority for the GOI in the 2010‐2014 National Medium‐Term Development Plan. Additional strategies and plans from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and presidential decrees guide implementation of the plan. These include disease specific strategies, such as those for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) control, immunization, lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination, avian influenza (AI), and others focused on animal and human interactions. Presidential Decree No.
In fiscal year 2001, Congress allocated funds for NIOSH to establish a new program for personal protective technology research to protect the nation’s miners, firefighters and other emergency responders, and health care, agricultural, and industrial workers. To carry out this research, NIOSH formed the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL).
The federal government supports some private
activities—such as home ownership, postsecondary
education, and certain commercial ventures—through
credit assistance offered to individuals and businesses.
Some of that assistance is in the form of direct federal
loans, and some is through federal guarantees of loans
made by private financial institutions. At the end of fiscal
year 2011, about $2.7 trillion was outstanding in such
federal direct loans and loan guarantees.
A central philosophy of an integrated
approach to water resources management
is that water should be managed at the
lowest appropriate level. This means taking
a basin approach where appropriate and
decentralizing decision making, usually
with increasing input and role for various
stakeholders with an interest in how water
resources are allocated and management
decisions are being made.
Farm Credit System The first federal agency
founded after the Federal Reserve Board, dedicated to providing credit for a specific sector of the American economy. The system evolved from a need to make credit for farmers more easily available and provide a mechanism by which credit could be allocated on a national scale.
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by the Small Business
Innovation Development Act. The program is designed to stimulate technology innovation by small businesses,
provide technical and scientific solutions to challenging problems, and encourage the marketing of the resulting
new technologies in the private sector. Federal agencies with more than $100 million in extramural research and
development (R&D) are required to allocate 2.5 percent of their research budgets to small businesses. Such funds
from all federal agencies amounted to approximately $1.
Highway spending, however, is not the only area where money is allocated in this
fashion. According to the Congressional Research Service, the nation’s 20 busiest
ports handle 80 percent of arriving oceangoing ships but account for less than 40
percent of federal Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund expenditures.
In the alloca-
tion of funds for drinking water projects, millions of dollars are allotted every year
just to ensure that every state receives at least 1 percent of the funds available.
When the 2007 World Cup was allocated to PR China, the country which had staged
the fi rst offi cial competition for female players in 1991, the president of the international
governing body of football, Federation Internationale de Football Association
(FIFA), Joseph ‘Sepp’ Blatter, remarked that women’s football was ‘returning to
its roots’.1 The Asian philosophy of revisiting, of continually ‘dusting the mirror’,
informed this investigation into the international status of women’s football....
New financing strategies can go only so far if existing constraints are not ad-
dressed. System transformation will require a major reorganization of the cat’s-
cradle of federal funding streams: Title IV (ChildWelfare); Title V (Maternal and
Child Health); Title XIX (Medicaid); Title XXI (the State Children’s Health Insur-
Behind, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and other pro-
grams that are allocated from the Department of Education. This will not be an
Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholders in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds.
In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the “New CREBs” program.
What are the challenges the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and related federal agencies face when allocating limited resources so that worker health and safety go hand in hand with innovation and technical progress? This was the central issue addressed at a workshop on nanotechnology
Chapter 19 - Accounting for estates and trusts. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Understand the proper methods of accounting for and administering an estate and the corresponding legal terminology; describe the types of estate distributions and identify the process of asset allocations and distributions from an estate; understand the federal estate tax and state inheritance tax systems, the corresponding exemptions, and tax planning opportunities;...
Chapter 19 - Accounting for estates and trusts. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Understand the proper methods of accounting for and administering an estate and the corresponding legal terminology; describe the types of estate distributions and identify the process of asset allocations and distributions from an estate; understand the federal estate tax and state inheritance tax systems, the corresponding exemptions, and tax planning opportunities.