Xem 1-20 trên 58 kết quả Allocation problems
  • Using market mechanisms for resource allocation in dis- tributed systems is not a new idea, nor is it one that has caught on in practice or with a large body of com- puter science research. Yet, projects that use mar- kets for distributed resource allocation recur every few years [1, 2, 3], and a new generation of research is exploring market-based resource allocation mechanisms [4, 5, 6, 7, 8] for distributed environments such as Planet- lab, Netbed, and computational grids. This paper has three goals.

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  • Competitive markets usually do a remarkably effective job of allocating society’s scarce resources to their most highly valued uses. Thus, we begin this chapter by demonstrating how properly functioning markets efficiently allocate resources. We then explore what happens when markets don’t function properly. In some circumstances, economically desirable goods are not produced at all. In other situations, they are either overproduced or underproduced. This chapter focuses on these situations, which economists refer to as market failures.

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  • In this chapter, you will see how individual consumers allocate their incomes among the various goods and services available to them. Given a certain budget, how does a consumer decide which goods and services to buy? This chapter will develop a model to answer this question. This chapter will also survey some of the recent insights about consumer behavior provided by the field of behavioral economics.

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  • Chapter 14 provides knowledge of rent, interest, and profit. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature of economic rent and how it is determined; describe the loanable funds theory of interest rates; demonstrate how interest rates relate to the time-value of money and vary based on risk, maturity, loan size, and taxability; relate why economic profits occur, and how profits, along with losses, allocate resources among alternative uses; list the share of U.S. earnings received by each of the factors of production.

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  • After reading chapter 21, you should be able to: Describe the extent of legal and illegal immigration into the United States; discuss why economists view economic immigration as a personal human capital investment; explain how immigration affects average wages, resource allocation, domestic output, and group income shares; relate how illegal immigration affects employment and wages in low-wage labor markets and impacts state and local budgets; demonstrate how economics can inform current immigration discussions and attempts to reform immigration laws.

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  • Abject poverty is without question the major economic problem of the world. This has always been so, but it has become the focus of great concern for nations and for large numbers of persons in recent years. To understand its causes and achieve its possible alleviation, an understanding of the nature of economics and economic activity is necessary.

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  • 11 Accounting Decisions. This chapter explains how accountants classify costs and determine the costs of products/services through differentiating product and period costs, and direct and indirect costs. The chapter emphasizes the overhead allocation problem: how indirect costs are allocated over products/services.

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  • A very important campaign is waged every working day in numerous businesses across England and Wales. It happens as directors, partners, proprietors, managers, credit controllers and their staff try to collect the money that is owed to them or their organisations. They almost always succeed in the end, but all too often the end is much too long coming. The culture of slow payment continues to be a problem and for some it can be a life or death problem, at least in the business sense.

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  • Decision making lies at the heart of most important business and government problems.

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  • In an increasingly complex world, decision analysis has a major role to play in helping decision makers to gain a greater understanding of the problems they face. The main aim of this book is to make decision analysis accessible to its largest group of potential users: managers and administrators in business and public sector organizations, most of whom, although expert at their work, are not mathematicians or statisticians.

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  • 11 Constrained optimization Solve constrained optimization problems by the substitution method. • Use the Lagrange method to set up and solve constrained maximization and constrained minimization problems. • Apply the Lagrange method to resource allocation problems in economics.

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  • Around the world, many fisheries are shared fisheries in the sense that a common fish stock is accessed by both commercial and non-commercial fishers. Non-commercial fishers can include recreational fishers, or customary fishers, or both. A prevalent problem in these fisheries is competition between commercial and non-commercial fishers for access to a resource that is subject to increasing utilisation pressure.

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  • Even to the casual observer it might appear that problems of market dominance and antitrust policy are almost daily in the news.

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  • In relaxation problems, you have to choose values for the independent variable at the mesh points. This is called allocating the grid or mesh. The usual procedure is to pick a plausible set of values and, if it works, to be content. If it doesn’t work

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  • This monograph is an “offspring” of an earlier textbook on Environmental Economics which was published in 2002. It is, however, not just an update or a simple translation of the former German version. Rather, this book includes topics, which played no significant role in public opinion some 10 years ago. Climate change is one of the cross-border environmental issues which has substantially gained importance and public attention over the last decade.

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  • Provide a vocabulary to describe complex resource bundles. In any system, be it administrative or market- based, users need a mechanism to express their resource holdings and desires. Markets, which have been used for decades to capture difficult resource allocation problems (e.g. energy markets, wireless spectrum auctions, airline landing slot exchanges), can also be used to capture the intricacies of systems problems.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Clinical review: Allocating ventilators during large-scale disasters - problems, planning, and process...

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  • The first-half decline was led by falling local and national revenues, down 6% to $6.98 billion and 11% to $1.4 billion, respectively. These figures are in line with recent survey results showing advertisers are cutting back on spending during the economic slowdown; traditional media like newspapers, radio, and magazines are taking some of the biggest hits. Continuing another trend, radio stations in smaller markets performed much better than counterparts in midsized and larger markets, according to Jim Boyle, a radio analyst with CL King and Associates.

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  • We introduce a novel multi-resource allocator to dynam- ically allocate resources for database servers running on virtual storage. Multi-resource allocation involves pro- portioning the database and storage server caches, and the storage bandwidth between applications according to overall performance goals. The problem is challenging due to the interplay between different resources, e.g., changing any cache quota affects the access pattern at the cache/disk levels below it in the storage hierarchy.

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  • In multiuser rate allocation problem, a set of transmitters want to transmit the video sequences to corresponding receivers through a common channel that is shared by all transmitters. Since the transmitters compete for the same resource, i.e., channel bandwidth, they form a non-cooperative social network. The key problem in this social network is how to e±ciently and fairly allocate data rate among di®erent users.

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