Global change, including climate change, ecosystem shifts and biodiversity loss as a result
of explosive human population growth and consumption, is emerging as one of the most
important issues of our time (Vitousek, 1994). Climate change in particular appears to be
altering the function, structure and stability of the Earth’s ecosystems (Lovelock, 2009). It has
been marked by an 80% increase in atmospheric CO2 level and a 0.
Many recent papers have documented
variations in aerosol loading, surface
cooling and their possible relationships
with rainfall in the monsoon regions
of India and East Asia (Krishnan
and Ramanathan, 2002; Devara et
al., 2003; Cheng et al., 2005, Prasad
et al., 2006; Nakajima et al., 2007;
George et al., 2008; and many others).
All of these methods of processing poultry manure will be discussed in greater detail later in
this review. It is important to note that all of these systems have merit. A certain system may
work for a particular operation but not for another operation because of certain
circumstances, such as location, climate, size, land availability, crops, and markets. All of
these factors greatly influence the way poultry manure is collected, handled and processed.
Each system of collection, handling and processing has its own merits and uses.
It is vital that sufficient information collection and analysis is
undertaken prior to the conduct of a planning workshop. Information
about existing problems comes from a variety of sources including
interviews, surveys, reports and statistics. The likely relevance,
feasibility and sustainability of an intervention are likely to be much
greater if important stakeholders are consulted during situation
analysis, and invited to participate in the planning workshop.
This book pioneers life-saving innovations and assists in the combat against world
hunger and food shortages that threaten human essentials, such as water and energy
supply. Floods, droughts, fires, storms, climate change, global warming and
greenhouse gas emissions can be devastating, altering the environment and,
ultimately, the production of foods.
There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated
to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies,
the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global
warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs.
‘ Climate change ’  in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed
directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the
global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed
over comparable time periods....
The previous edition of Energy Technology Perspectives(ETP), published in summer
2008, called for an energy technology revolution to tackle the undesirable
consequences of our current patterns of energy supply and use. It also highlighted
that, if we did not alter course, concerns about energy security and the threat of
dangerous climate change would only become much worse. So what – if any –
progress have we made over the last two years in meeting these challenges?
At first sight, it may seem as though not much has changed.
Nowadays, environmental issues including air and water pollution, climate
change, overexploitation of marine ecosystems, exhaustion of fossil resources,
conservation of biodiversity are receiving major attention from the public,
stakeholders and scholars from the local to the planetary scales. It is now
clearly recognized that human activities yield major ecological and environ-
mental stresses with irreversible loss of species, destruction of habitat or cli-
mate catastrophes as the most dramatic examples of their eﬀects.
Part memoir, nutritional primer, and political manifesto, this controversial examination exposes the destructive history of agriculture—causing the devastation of prairies and forests, driving countless species extinct, altering the climate, and destroying the topsoil—and asserts that, in order to save the planet, food must come from within living communities. In order for this to happen, the argument champions eating locally and sustainably and encourages those with the resources to grow their own food.
Many green projects are currently often not viable on a stand-alone basis due to mispricing in the
markets which makes traditional or „black‟ projects more attractive, due to climate change externalities not
being priced into these projects or mispricing due to government policies, such as fossil fuel subsidies (and
the introduction of carbon pricing through schemes such as the European Emissions Trading Scheme has
not significantly altered this).
These fuel subsidies, still prevalent in many countries, deteriorate the
economics of low-carbon projects.
Against this background of complexity we face a new set
of challenges. For 20 years or more we have recognized
that the way we do business has serious impacts on the
world around us. Now it is increasingly clear that the state
of the world around us affects the way we do business.
This report shows that population growth, exploitation of
natural resources, climate change and other factors are
putting the world on a development trajectory that is not
sustainable. In other words, if we fail to alter our patterns
of production and consumption, things will begin to go
As recent weather events have illustrated, coastal
areas in both developing and more industrialized
economies face a range of risks related to climate
change (IPCC 2007a). Anticipated risks include an
accelerated rise in sea level of up to 0.6 meters or
more by 2100, a further rise in sea surface tempera-
tures by up to 3° C, an intensification of tropical
and extra tropical cyclones, larger extreme waves
and storm surges, altered precipitation and run-
off, and ocean acidification (Nicholls et al. 2007).
Climate change is particularly relevant because it is expected to alter not only the natu-
ral environment as a result of flooding or drought but also the urban environment as a
result of changes in land use.
Only the future will tell to what degree these factors will affect the risk of pest-related dis-
eases. Still, the conclusions drawn by this report will help and support national govern-
ments to understand better the public health relevance of urban pests and to be able to
prepare the ground for increased technical capacity and ability for action.