Xem 1-20 trên 44 kết quả Altered drug
  • The abuse of amphetamines is of national concern from a public health perspective. Review of this subject is timely and important, because the problem of amphetamine-like drugs has recently been amplified by the introduction of designer drugs in the illicit market. There has been an increasing number of attempts by chemists in clandestine laboratories to synthesize structurally altered congeners that might intensify the moodaltering property of this class of compounds.

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  • Psychoactive drug use is not just a phenomenon of the 20th century; many different types of drug have been used throughout recorded history. In this chapter we will outline the main classes of psychoactive drug. We are able to do this in a single chapter because, despite there being thousands of different drugs, they can be classified in a few main groups (Table 1.1). The crucial role of neurotransmitters will also be described because psychoactive drugs alter mood and behaviour by modifying nerve activity in various ways....

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • Chronic consumption For benefits of chronic alcohol consumption, see page 187. Central nervous system. The development of dependence on alcohol appears to involve alterations in central nervous system neurotransmission. The acute effect of alcohol is to block NMDA receptors for which the normal agonist is glutamate, the main excitatory transmitter in the brain. Chronic exposure increases the number of NMDA receptors and also 'L type' calcium channels, while the action of the (inhibitory) GABA neurotransmitter is reduced.

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  • Occlusive vascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.There is now better understanding of the mechanisms by which the haemostatic system ensures blood remains fluid within vessels, yet forms a solid plug when a vessel is breached, and of the ways in which haemostasis may be altered by drugs to prevent or reverse (lyse) pathological thrombosis.

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  • Drugs that act upon the central nervous system (CNS) influence the lives of everyone, every day. These agents are invaluable therapeutically because they can produce specific physiological and psychological effects. Without general anesthetics, modern surgery would be impossible. Drugs that affect the CNS can selectively relieve pain, reduce fever, suppress disordered movement, induce sleep or arousal, reduce the desire to eat, or allay the tendency to vomit. Selectively acting drugs can be used to treat anxiety, mania, depression, or schizophrenia and do so without altering consciousness....

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  • The impact of biomarkers in present day health care system, health management and healthy life is enormous. Clinicians need them for diagnosis, prognosis, effect of therapeutic intervention, and most importantly, for early detection of a disease. Pharmaceutical industries need them for new drug discovery and drug efficiency test. Regulatory authorities need them for testing toxicity and environmental impact. Epidemiologists need them for population screening and risk factor determination.

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  • The general meaning of gene therapy is to correct defective genes that are responsible for disease development. The most common form of gene therapy involves the insertion, alteration or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues. Many of gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery of therapeutic genes made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems. Recently, the viral vectors in laboratory and clinical use have been based on RNA and DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges.

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  • Through the licensure of physicians in each country, we are permitted to treat female cancer patients. However, the treatment modalities contain medication of various anti-cancer drugs that can be associated with potentially fatal toxicity if they are not used correctly. In addition, surgery can also be associated with risks during our efforts to repair normal tissues or remove tumors. Such unfortunate events can be fatal.

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  • Assuming that (1) new information will correct or improve the firm's prior beliefs and (2) the firm has the technical and regulatory flexibility to alter its decisions, we are ultimately concerned with the economic value of the changed decision. Given that the firm will "re- optimize" based on the new, better information, what is the value of that re-optimization? Assume that Chemical A's cost was found to be grossly underestimated and that the firm was able to identify a substitute input B whose true cost was substantially lower.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Molecular and macromolecular alterations of recombinant adenoviral vectors do not resolve changes in hepatic drug metabolism during infection

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  • The 5¢ flanking region of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) gene was systematically analysed to provide the basis for understanding the mechanisms which regulate Bsep transcription. In addition substrates and drugs were investigated for their ability to alter Bsep promoter activity. Bsep promoter function was restricted to hepatocyte derived HepG2 cells. The 5¢ deletional analysis revealed a biphasic shape of reporter gene activities, indicating a suppressive element between nucleotides )800 and )512. ...

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  • Ovarian cancer is the most common fatal cancer of the female reproductive tract in industrialized countries. At the time of writing, it is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in women in the U.K., after breast, lung, and colorectal cancer, with a lifetime risk of approximately 2% (1). It tends to present at an advanced stage, with limited prospects for treatment and generally poor survival.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế về bệnh thú y đề tài: Altered maturation of dendritic cells by taxol, an anticancer drug

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  • The behaviour, values and beliefs of parents, families/whānau and other members of their community have a powerful influence on young people’s developing attitudes to drugs. Young people are also influenced by the messages they receive from the media and marketing campaigns. Pop culture, music and music videos, online media and electronic messaging services, television and advertisements can all portray powerful, positive, glamorous images of drug use.

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  • The structural and kinetic effects of amprenavir (APV), a clinical HIV pro-tease (PR) inhibitor, were analyzed with wild-type enzyme and mutants with single substitutions of V32I, I50V, I54V, I54M, I84V and L90M that are common in drug resistance. Crystal structures of the APV complexes at resolutions of 1.02–1.85 A ˚ reveal the structural changes due to the muta-tions.

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  • HIV-1 protease (PR) and two drug-resistant variants – PR with the V82A mutation (PRV82A) and PR with the I84V mutation (PRI84V) – were studied using reduced peptide analogs of five natural cleavage sites (CA-p2, p2-NC, p6 pol -PR, p1-p6 and NC-p1) to understand the structural and kine-tic changes. The common drug-resistant mutations V82A and I84V alter residues forming the substrate-binding site. Eight crystal structures were refined at resolutions of 1.10–1.60 A ˚ .

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  • In order to permanently preserve the quality of habitat for bird species resident to the Weidmoos, it was essential to alter the post-extraction state of the site, so that an open landscape with numerous bodies of water and moist areas would remain. The most important measure to ensure the long-term conservation of the Weidmoos as an open landscape – and therefore as a valuable bird habitat – is the so-called “re-waterlogging” of the site.

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  • Despite the relative safety and popularity of SSRIs and other antidepressants, some studies have suggested that they may have unintentional effects on some people, especially adolescents and young adults. In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a thorough review of published and unpublished controlled clinical trials of antidepressants that involved nearly 4,400 children and adolescents.

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  • Since biomarkers of safety and efficacy are becoming tools in drug development, it is necessary to determine whether these biomarkers can qualify for applications in clinical trials. Qualification is defined as “a conclusion that the biomarker data submitted support use of the biomarker in drug discovery, drug development or post approval studies and where appropriate, in regulatory decision making” (ICH E-16). A definition of validation was proposed during the workshop.

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