Altered physiology

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  • Despite my many years of research and teaching in platelet physiology and pharmacology at the University of Minnesota, I am often confronted with conflicting opinions as to the relevance of nonnucleated platelets in human health and disease. It is fascinating to think that how cells with no apparent nucleus, have such a towering impact on concepts, dealing with often overlapping physiological (i.e. hemostasis, wound healing, etc.) and pathophysiological (i.e. thrombosis, stroke, atherosclerosis, wound healing, diabetes, inflammation and cancer) components.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • This book is aimed at Foundation Programme trainees and for trainees in medicine, surgery, anaesthesia and emergency medicine – people who deal with acutely ill adults. Foundation Programme trainers, final year medical students and nursing staff working in critical care areas will also find this book extremely useful. There are many books on the management of patients who are acutely ill, but all have a traditional ‘recipe’ format. One looks up a diagnosis, and the management is summarised.

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  • Due to the widespread use of ceramic coatings, several synthesis techniques have been developed in recent decades. The majority of these techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) and their variants, are focused on the synthesis of flat coatings. Recently, the preceramic polymeric synthesis route has offered the possibility to impregnate preceramic materials into porous matrices prior to pyrolysis in order to create coated or composite materials This technique, however, leads to pore filling and alterations of the original substrate texture....

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  • Essence (Jing) is a fundamental material of the human body and the material basis for various physiological functions of the human body. The congenital essence is received from one's parents, and is stored in the kidney; it is also known as "the prenatal essence", serving to promote the growth, development maturity, and reproduction of the body, thus the congenital essence is also called the "reproductive essence. The acquired essence is derived through the functions of the Zang-Fu organs from the nutritive substance of food and drink to nourish the body.

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  • MOST OF US are familiar with the observation that house plants placed near a window have branches that grow toward the incoming light. This response, called phototropism, is an example of how plants alter their growth patterns in response to the direction of incident radiation. This response to light is intrinsically different from light trapping by photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, plants harness light and convert it into chemical energy (see Chapters 7 and 8). In contrast, phototropism is an example of the use of light as an environmental signal.

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  • This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1989-01-01 edition. Excerpt: ... subject with proper alignment of the planes of section. This will be both expensive and time-consuming; however, at least in selected cases (e.g., cases of aging and dementia with brain atrophy), such an interaction will be essential. More speculative will be the use of MRI to further constrain PET data by defining gray-white matter differences.

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  • How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.

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  • Nearly a decade elapsed between publication of the second and third editions of Basic Medical Endocrinology due in large part to the turmoil in the publishing industry brought on by massive consolidation.Although this edition is new and the publisher is new, the aims of earlier editions of this work are unchanged. Its focus remains human endocrinology with an emphasis on cellular and molecular mechanisms presented in the context of integration of body functions.

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  • Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems often are quite distinct from those required for young ones. Recognition and understanding of the special nutrition problems of the aged are being intensively researched and tested, especially due to the increases in the elderly in the general population. In developed countries, economic restrictions and physical inactivity during aging can significantly reduce food intakes, contributing to nutritional stresses and needs. Many disease entities and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged.

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  • Bacteria are non-chlorophyllated unicellular organisms that reproduce by fission and do not present nuclear envelope. Gram´s stain is a staining technique used to classify bacteria based on the different characteristic of their cell walls. Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are determined by the amount and location of peptidoglycan in the cell wall, exhibiting different chemical compositions and structures, cell-wall permeabilities, physiologies, metabolisms, and pathogenicities.

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  • Drugs that act upon the central nervous system (CNS) influence the lives of everyone, every day. These agents are invaluable therapeutically because they can produce specific physiological and psychological effects. Without general anesthetics, modern surgery would be impossible. Drugs that affect the CNS can selectively relieve pain, reduce fever, suppress disordered movement, induce sleep or arousal, reduce the desire to eat, or allay the tendency to vomit. Selectively acting drugs can be used to treat anxiety, mania, depression, or schizophrenia and do so without altering consciousness....

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  • Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems often are quite distinct from young ones. Recognition and understanding of the special nutrition problems of the aged are being intensively researched and tested, especially due to the increases in the elderly in the general population. In developed countries, economic restrictions and physical inactivity during aging can signifi cantly reduce food intakes, contributing to nutritional stresses and needs. Many disease entities and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged.

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  • Anesthesia management is markedly influenced by pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced physiologic alterations may be compounded by labor, pregnancy-associated conditions (e.g., pregnancy-induced hypertension), or intercurrent disease states of the mother or fetus (e.g., heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, diabetes, or isoimmunization). The pregnancy alterations most influencing anesthesia are those of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems. At term, cardiac output is increased by 30%–40% above nonpregnant levels in the absence of aortocaval compression.

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  • The Roman philosopher Cicero said that “everything is in the face”, and truly the human face is a complex, multifunctional part of our anatomy which tells the world, who we are and what we are feeling both emotionally and physically, as well as performing a number of essential physiological functions. We all have to live with our own face and with how others perceive us through its appearance. It can effect our self esteem and if we are unhappy with it we may try to alter it.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Part 2. Cardinal Manifestations and Presentation of Diseases Section 6. Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function Chapter 33. Dyspnea and Pulmonary Edema Dyspnea The American Thoracic Society defines dyspnea as a "subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity. The experience derives from interactions among multiple physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors, and may induce secondary physiological and behavioral responses.

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  • Classes There are five major classes of hemoglobinopathies (Table 99-1). Structural hemoglobinopathies occur when mutations alter the amino acid sequence of a globin chain, altering the physiologic properties of the variant hemoglobins and producing the characteristic clinical abnormalities. The most clinically relevant variant hemoglobins polymerize abnormally, as in sickle cell anemia, or exhibit altered solubility or oxygen-binding affinity. Thalassemia syndromes arise from mutations that impair production or translation of globin mRNA, leading to deficient globin chain biosynthesis.

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  • In the vascular system, estrogen and serotonin have been shown to individually alter clotting, cholesterol, vasocon- striction, and heart attacks. Both high and low levels of E2 have been associated with increased risk of thromboem- bolism; high levels result in increased clot formation, while low levels result in slower clot breakdown. Unusu- ally high concentrations of estrogen (beyond normal physiological levels) directly increase the likelihood of clotting by increasing production of clotting factors VII through X in the liver [41].

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  • The progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes involves intermediate stages of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), also known as prediabetes. The pathophysiology underlying the development of these glucose metabolic alterations is multifactorial, leading to an alteration in the balance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of the signaling pathways mediating the various physiologic effects of insulin is steadily advancing....

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  • Aging and Oral Health While tooth loss and dental disease are not normal consequences of aging, a complex array of structural and functional changes occurs with age that can affect oral health. Subtle changes in tooth structure (e.g., diminished pulp space and volume, sclerosis of dentinal tubules, altered proportions of nerve and vascular pulp content) result in diminished or altered pain sensitivity, reduced reparative capacity, and increased tooth brittleness.

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