We compare two approaches for describing and generating bodies of rules used for natural language parsing. In today’s parsers rule bodies do not exist a priori but are generated on the ﬂy, usually with methods based on n-grams, which are one particular way of inducing probabilistic regular languages. We compare two approaches for inducing such languages. One is based on n-grams, the other on minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence.
Alternative medicine is a term that causes confusion for most people.
What is alternative medicine? How does it compare with conventional
medicine? What is integrative medicine? Is integrative medicine the same
as alternative medicine? How does alternative medicine compare with
holistic health? What do all of these practices have in common, and what
are their differences? Do they work? Are they safe?
The reason most consumers choose to explore alternative approaches
to healing is a very simple one: what they’re currently doing isn’t working.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: An alternative approach to combination vaccines: intradermal administration of isolated components for control of anthrax, botulism, plague and staphylococcal toxic shock...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Stability of a generalized quadratic functional equation in various spaces: a fixed point alternative approach
We introduce an alternative approach to extracting word pair associations from corpora, based purely on surface distances in the text. We contrast it with the prevailing windowbased co-occurrence model and show it to be more statistically robust and to disclose a broader selection of significant associative relationships - owing largely to the property of scale-independence. In the process we provide insights into the limiting characteristics of window-based methods which complement the sometimes conflicting application-oriented literature in this area. ...
Lecture Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World - Chapter 8 include objectives: Prioritize the system requirements based on the desired scope and level of automation for the new system, describe the strategic decisions that integrate the application deployment environment and the design approach for the new system, determine alternative approaches for system development,...
Much has happened since the first edition of this book appeared in 2002.
Despite the continuing paucity of robust scientific evidence to support
most of its constituent therapies, complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) remains popular with clients who appreciate the holistic approach
and have a belief in its effectiveness.
Biofuels such as bioethanol are becoming a viable alternative
to fossil fuels. Utilizing agricultural biomass for the production
of biofuel has drawn much interest in many science and
engineering disciplines. As one of the major crops, maize
offers promise in this regard. Compared to other crops with
biofuel potential, maize can provide both starch (seed) and
cellulosic (stover) material for bioethanol production.
The initial reason for writing Complementary and Alternative Medicine: An Evidence-
Based Approach was the need to examine research evidence and claims purported by
advocates, clinicians, and researchers of complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) regarding its effectiveness. Both of us had previous experience with certain of
these therapies since we had worked with American Indians who used alternative spiritual-
indigenous medical approaches to health-related problems. Joseph Jacobs, a
Mohawk, grew up using many of these healing practices.
In many parts of the world, where medicines are not readily available
or affordable, the public continue to rely on medicines used traditionally
in their cultures. At the same time, affluent consumers in the industrialized
world are spending their own money on healthcare approaches
that fall outside what has been considered mainstream medicine. A growing
body of national and international studies highlight the reality that
there is exponential growth of global interest in and use of traditional (i.e.
indigenous), complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM).
This book was written to provide accurate and helpful information about
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to people with multiple
sclerosis (MS). The term CAM refers broadly to medical approaches, such as
acupuncture or herbal medicine, that are not typical components of conventional
medicine. Despite the fact that the majority of people with MS appear
to use CAM, it may be difficult to find reliable information about the
relevance and usefulness of these therapies in MS.
As health care providers, we spend our lives searching for treatments
that reduce suffering and lengthen the lives of our patients. Sometimes
we find solutions in surprising places. Although we all have hopes for
advancements in technology, the future of medicine is also about
challenging preconceptions as we change our healing biases. In many
ways, this is the natural evolution of “global medicine.” We have global
communications and global banking; however, until recently medicine
has remained remarkably provincial.
The use of non-biomedical therapeutics and the management of cancer are
high profile issues in health internationally. They both generate, in their
own right, considerable debate amongst academics, practitioners and the
wider public. Increasingly, as non-biomedical approaches have become
more and more a feature of the range of therapeutic options available to
cancer patients, the two have become inextricably linked. This book is concerned
with that increasingly evident combination.
Objective-C Recipes provides a problem solution approach for dealing with key aspects of Objective-C programming, ensuring you have the indispensable reference you need to successfully execute common programming tasks. You will see how to use the unique features of the Objective-C programming language, the helpful features of the Foundation framework, and the benefits of using Objective-J as an alternative. Solutions are available for a range of problems, including:
This book is a compilation of chapters written by experts in their field on
various modalities and dimensions of holistic health care and aging. We
envision the book to be a compendium of reliable and authoritative information
on complementary and alternative therapies that health professionals
may use as they seek to improve the health and quality of life
of those in their care.
The rise of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) – a whole array
of practices, products and approaches to health and illness1 – can certainly no
longer be characterised as cultural fad or fashion. Changes in the use of titles
(from ‘unscientific’ and ‘marginal’ to ‘complementary’ and ‘integrative’)
reflect a more substantive relocation and transformation of many of these
medicines from the fringe to the mainstream of both community and professional
health-care discourse and practice (Tovey et al. 2004).
Clearly indicated throughout this report are the very important free and open discussions and objective
analysis of perceived issues, concerns, and alternative approaches, including various mission concepts,
among all of the competent technical and management members of the internal staff, even if those discus-
sions might indicate differences of opinion regarding planned approaches. This interchange was certainly
strongly encouraged and pursued by Bob Seamans.
The goal of this book is to propose an alternative approach to address the
problem of the exponential rise of health care costs, and, more importantly, to
address the lingering dilemma of how to establish broadly agreed-upon fundamental
guidelines by which health care can be managed in a manner that is more morally
Although in no way a new concept, the notion that society’s financial resources,
even when it comes to health care, are indeed limited is one with which the general
public has grown increasingly familiar only during the past two decades.
We present a novel approach to grammatical error correction based on Alternating Structure Optimization. As part of our work, we introduce the NUS Corpus of Learner English (NUCLE), a fully annotated one million words corpus of learner English available for research purposes. We conduct an extensive evaluation for article and preposition errors using various feature sets. Our experiments show that our approach outperforms two baselines trained on non-learner text and learner text, respectively. ...