As in a past decades, the world today continues to be at crossroads in terms of energy.
Shortages and rising prices of fuel, accompanied by environmental damage are
leading to a poor quality of life. Fossil fuel consumption is increasing, and our search
for oil has led to ever deeper reserves, with its higher production costs. Rapid
depletion of oil and gas are real issues affecting both current and future generations.
The following sections provide an overview of the technical and qualitative
characteristics of a wide range of alternative fuels that can replace coal in cement kilns.
These fuels include agricultural and non-agricultural biomass, chemical and hazardous
wastes, petroleum-based wastes, and miscellaneous waste fuels. Each of these
alternatives are described in detail, including a discussion of average substitution rates,
energy and water content of the fuels, carbon dioxide emissions factors, and change in
carbon emissions per ton1
of coal replacement.
This document describes a study done for the U.S. Army Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) to assess future needs for temporary petroleum pipeline structure. At the time this work was begun, the Army was weighing further development of a new pipeline capability, the Rapidly Installed Fuel Transfer System (RIFTS),
With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel.
After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods.
Hydrogen fuel cells are one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engine hybrids and pure battery electric power for propelling passenger vehicles. Compared to internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles burning hydrocarbon fuels, fuel cell vehicles offer three primary advantages. First, the fuel cell system produces no tank-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions and no other harmful emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, or particulates. Second, the fuel cell system offers the potential for approximately 30% higher well-to-wheel energy efﬁciency.
The relative distribution of market value across the sectors is shown in Figure 3. Six of the 23 products
and services ‐ Alternative Fuels (17.3%), Building Technologies (12.1%), Alternative Fuels for Vehicles
(11.8%), Wind (10.7%), Geothermal (8.7%) and Waste Water Treatment (7.4%) ‐ together account for
60% of total market value.
Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.
The major source of liquid fuels is crude petroleum; other sources are shale and tar sands. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels—gasoline and methanol—can be made from coal and natural gas. Ethanol, some of which is used as an automotive fuel, is derived from vegetable matter.
This book, Environmental Toxicology, is essentially the third, updated and
improved version of the highly successful second edition of Principles of
Environmental Toxicology. Basically the same outlay of chapters and the
way of presentation were maintained; however, considerable changes and
improvement were incorporated into this edition
There are over 881,000 jobs within the LCEGS sector, with almost half of these in the Emerging Low
The products and services employing the largest number of people are all in the Emerging Low Carbon
Carbon industries. UK employment levels in the LCEGS sector are broadly in line with our global LCEGS
market share, and with employment levels for other developed economies. Those employed in the
specialist part of the LCEGS sector number just over 445,000.
There is, of course, some potential overlap within these sub‐sectors, and some activities could fall
within more than one of the three main categories. For example, Additional Energy Sources could
potentially fall within the Renewable Energy sector, but has been include within Emerging Low Carbon
because it includes mainly new energy sources and those that are still in development (such as
hydrogen fuel cells).
The rapid growth of the portable electronics market includes ‘power-hungry’ accessories in a smaller system, which has led to the search for an alternative and advanced power source due to the limited energy density of conventional lithium-ion batteries. Table 1 lists the power demand of the different portable applications. Fuel cells promise to provide a more reliable and longer operational time than batteries. As the energy is stored as a reservoir rather than as an integral part of the power source, fuel cells have advantages over batteries.
The use of alternative fuels to displace coal reduces reliance on fossil fuels, reduces
emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants, and contributes to long-term cost
savings for cement plants. Further, due to their high burning temperatures, cement kilns
are well-suited for accepting and efficiently utilizing a wide range of wastes that can
present a disposal challenge.
This report begins with an overview of the types of alternative fuels used in cement kilns,
focusing on energy and environmental considerations.
20 Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil
Arumugam Sakunthalai Ramadhas, Simon Jayaraj, and Chandrashekaran Muraleedharan
Abstract.................................................................................................................. 281 20.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 282 20.2 Potential of Rubber Seed Oil as an Alternative Fuel ................................... 282 20.2.1 Transesterification .......................................................................... 283 20.2.1.
1.1 This test method is intended for use on any petroleum
2 A procedure suitable for black specimens, cylinder stock, and nondistillate fuel oil is described in 8.8. A procedure for testing the ﬂuidity of a residual fuel oil at a speciﬁed temperature is described in Appendix X1.
1.2 Several ASTM test methods offering alternative proce- dures for determining pour points using automatic apparatus are available. None of them share the same designation number as Test Method D 97.
Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the
city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter,
which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick
kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in
Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other
toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany
The second cluster of chapters focuses on factors that facilitate the adoption or nonadoption
of agroforestry systems. The authors of the last three chapters argue that
increasing the scale of adoption and the impact of agroforestry innovations requires
actions that are based on an understanding of the dynamics of adoption and the
critical factors that determine whether farmers accept, do not accept, or partially
accept, innovations. Place et al.
Under certain conditions, lichen floristic and community analyses can be used in conjunction with
measured levels of ambient or depositional pollutants accumulated by lichens to detect effects of changing
air quality on vegetation. This information can demonstrate whether air pollutants cause undesirable
changes in species composition or presence/absence of lichen species within terrestrial plant communities.
It is important that any alternative hypotheses (e.g.