Xem 1-20 trên 56 kết quả Alternative fuels
  • The following sections provide an overview of the technical and qualitative characteristics of a wide range of alternative fuels that can replace coal in cement kilns. These fuels include agricultural and non-agricultural biomass, chemical and hazardous wastes, petroleum-based wastes, and miscellaneous waste fuels. Each of these alternatives are described in detail, including a discussion of average substitution rates, energy and water content of the fuels, carbon dioxide emissions factors, and change in carbon emissions per ton1 of coal replacement.

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  • As in a past decades, the world today continues to be at crossroads in terms of energy. Shortages and rising prices of fuel, accompanied by environmental damage are leading to a poor quality of life. Fossil fuel consumption is increasing, and our search for oil has led to ever deeper reserves, with its higher production costs. Rapid depletion of oil and gas are real issues affecting both current and future generations.

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  • This document describes a study done for the U.S. Army Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) to assess future needs for temporary petroleum pipeline structure. At the time this work was begun, the Army was weighing further development of a new pipeline capability, the Rapidly Installed Fuel Transfer System (RIFTS),

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  • With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel. After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods.

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  • Hydrogen fuel cells are one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engine hybrids and pure battery electric power for propelling passenger vehicles. Compared to internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles burning hydrocarbon fuels, fuel cell vehicles offer three primary advantages. First, the fuel cell system produces no tank-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions and no other harmful emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, or particulates. Second, the fuel cell system offers the potential for approximately 30% higher well-to-wheel energy efficiency.

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  • This book presents a comprehensive review of studies in nuclear reactors technology from authors across the globe.

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  • This book, Environmental Toxicology, is essentially the third, updated and improved version of the highly successful second edition of Principles of Environmental Toxicology. Basically the same outlay of chapters and the way of presentation were maintained; however, considerable changes and improvement were incorporated into this edition

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  •   The relative distribution of market value across the sectors is shown in Figure 3. Six of the 23 products  and services ‐ Alternative Fuels (17.3%), Building Technologies (12.1%), Alternative Fuels for Vehicles  (11.8%), Wind (10.7%), Geothermal (8.7%) and Waste Water Treatment (7.4%) ‐ together account for  60% of total market value.

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  • Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.

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  • The major source of liquid fuels is crude petroleum; other sources are shale and tar sands. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels—gasoline and methanol—can be made from coal and natural gas. Ethanol, some of which is used as an automotive fuel, is derived from vegetable matter.

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  • There are over 881,000  jobs within the LCEGS sector, with almost half of these  in the Emerging Low  The products and services employing the largest number of people are all in the Emerging Low Carbon  Carbon industries. UK employment levels in the LCEGS sector are broadly in line with our global LCEGS  market  share,  and with employment  levels  for other developed economies.  Those employed  in  the  specialist part of the LCEGS sector number just over 445,000.

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  • There  is,  of  course,  some  potential  overlap within  these  sub‐sectors,  and  some  activities  could  fall  within more  than  one  of  the  three main  categories.  For  example,  Additional  Energy  Sources  could  potentially fall within the Renewable Energy sector, but has been include within Emerging Low Carbon  because  it  includes  mainly  new  energy  sources  and  those  that  are  still  in  development  (such  as  hydrogen fuel cells).

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  • The rapid growth of the portable electronics market includes ‘power-hungry’ accessories in a smaller system, which has led to the search for an alternative and advanced power source due to the limited energy density of conventional lithium-ion batteries. Table 1 lists the power demand of the different portable applications. Fuel cells promise to provide a more reliable and longer operational time than batteries. As the energy is stored as a reservoir rather than as an integral part of the power source, fuel cells have advantages over batteries.

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  • The use of alternative fuels to displace coal reduces reliance on fossil fuels, reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants, and contributes to long-term cost savings for cement plants. Further, due to their high burning temperatures, cement kilns are well-suited for accepting and efficiently utilizing a wide range of wastes that can present a disposal challenge. This report begins with an overview of the types of alternative fuels used in cement kilns, focusing on energy and environmental considerations.

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  • 20 Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Arumugam Sakunthalai Ramadhas, Simon Jayaraj, and Chandrashekaran Muraleedharan contents Abstract.................................................................................................................. 281 20.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 282 20.2 Potential of Rubber Seed Oil as an Alternative Fuel ................................... 282 20.2.1 Transesterification .......................................................................... 283 20.2.1.

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  • 1. Scope* 1.1 This test method is intended for use on any petroleum product. 2 A procedure suitable for black specimens, cylinder stock, and nondistillate fuel oil is described in 8.8. A procedure for testing the fluidity of a residual fuel oil at a specified temperature is described in Appendix X1. 1.2 Several ASTM test methods offering alternative proce- dures for determining pour points using automatic apparatus are available. None of them share the same designation number as Test Method D 97.

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  • Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter, which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started to cough.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

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  • The second cluster of chapters focuses on factors that facilitate the adoption or nonadoption of agroforestry systems. The authors of the last three chapters argue that increasing the scale of adoption and the impact of agroforestry innovations requires actions that are based on an understanding of the dynamics of adoption and the critical factors that determine whether farmers accept, do not accept, or partially accept, innovations. Place et al.

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  • Under certain conditions, lichen floristic and community analyses can be used in conjunction with measured levels of ambient or depositional pollutants accumulated by lichens to detect effects of changing air quality on vegetation. This information can demonstrate whether air pollutants cause undesirable changes in species composition or presence/absence of lichen species within terrestrial plant communities. It is important that any alternative hypotheses (e.g.

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