We discuss existing approaches to train LR parsers, which have been used for statistical resolution of structural ambiguity. These approaches are nonoptimal, in the sense that a collection of probability distributions cannot be obtained. In particular, some probability distributions expressible in terms of a context-free grammar cannot be expressed in terms of the LR parser constructed from that grammar, under the restrictions of the existing approaches to training of LR parsers.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami-m Fading
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: “The non-ischemic repair” as a safe alternative method for repair of anterior post-infarction VSD...
Lecture Financial accounting - Appendix 3A: An alternative method of recording deferrals, this chapter prepare adjusting entries for prepaid expenses originally recorded in an expense account, prepare adjusting entries for unearned revenues originally recorded in a revenue account.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp đề tài: Relative efficiency of alternative methods to evaluate wood stiffness in the frame of hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry) clonal selection...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học thế giới đề tài: A comparison of alternative methods to compute conditional genotype probabilities for genetic evaluation with ﬁnite locus models
The purpose of this paper is to help customer survey process stakeholders understand some of
the inherent tradeoffs of alternative survey methods. The scope addresses factors including size
of the customer population, strengths and weaknesses of alternate methods, survey response rates
and resource constraints. When taken with the information needs of the organization, these
factors converge to suggest appropriate survey methods and designs that will facilitate an
effective customer satisfaction measurement (CSM) process. ...
The purpose of this paper is to help customer survey process stakeholders understand some of the inherent tradeoffs of alternative survey methods. The scope addresses factors including size of the customer population, strengths and weaknesses of alternate...
Shortly before I began research for this book on
alternative and complementary medicine, I
informed a dear friend of the pending task. His first
comment was “How many volumes?”
Those three words would haunt me throughout
the project. One book hardly scratches the surface;
therefore my objectives were to compile up-to-date
information on and explanations of as many alternative,
complementary, or integrative healing
methods as possible and to present them in an
unbiased and accessible A-to-Z format.
Charging of batteries must be conducted with direct current. Alternative current or rotary current have to be transformed. Mostly semiconductor rectiﬁers are employed for this task. Methods for battery charging vary with demand and the charging time is of great importance. The charging devices can be divided into those that charge above gassing voltage and those that do not. Chargers that exceed gassing voltage during charging are employed for charging one battery at a time, while the ones that do not exceed gassing voltage can be used for parallel charging of several batteries. ...
1.1 This test method is intended for use on any petroleum
2 A procedure suitable for black specimens, cylinder stock, and nondistillate fuel oil is described in 8.8. A procedure for testing the ﬂuidity of a residual fuel oil at a speciﬁed temperature is described in Appendix X1.
1.2 Several ASTM test methods offering alternative proce- dures for determining pour points using automatic apparatus are available. None of them share the same designation number as Test Method D 97.
Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientists present what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to traditional animal toxicological assessment and provide potentially new initiatives.
According to a random survey conducted in 1997, 42% of Americans
sought out and used one or more types of medical interventions that
were not taught in medical schools and were not generally available in
U.S. hospitals. This represented an eight percentage point increase over
the 1990 results of the same survey. While the vast majority (96%) of
these people were also seeking conventional treatment for their health
problems, less than 40% of these people told their conventional doctors
what they were doing. Clearly, something’s going on with alternative
This paper examines the extent to which verb diathesis alternations are empirically attested in corpus data. We automatically acquire alternating verbs from large balanced corpora by using partialparsing methods and taxonomic information, and discuss how corpus data can be used to quantify linguistic generalizations. We estimate the productivity of an alternation and the typicality of its members using type and token frequencies.
Most methods for data analysis were derived from the plasma radioactivity curve and were based on the general
assumptions that synthesis and catabolism took place in a compartment in close contact with the intravascular space,
that the study subjects were in steady state concerning IgG metabolism, and that metabolism of the labeled protein was
identical with that of the native unlabeled protein (1). Figure 2a shows a semilogarithmic plot of the time-dependent
decline of 125I-labeled IgG representing the disappearance of the tracer from the plasma in a normal subject.
Automatically acquired lexicons with subcategorization information have already proved accurate and useful enough for some purposes but their accuracy still shows room for improvement. By means of diathesis alternation, this paper proposes a new filtering method, which improved the performance of Korhonen’s acquisition system remarkably, with the precision increased to 91.18% and recall unchanged, making the acquired lexicon much more practical for further manual proofreading and other NLP uses. ...
The integration of sophisticated inference-based techniques into natural language processing applications first requires a reliable method of encoding the predicate-argument structure of the propositional content of text. Recent statistical approaches to automated predicateargument annotation have utilized parse tree paths as predictive features, which encode the path between a verb predicate and a node in the parse tree that governs its argument.
W e present a method for automatically identifying verbal participation in diathesis alternations. Automatically acquired subcategorization frames are compared to a hand-crafted classification for selecting candidate verbs. The m i n i m u m description length principle is then used to produce a model and cost for storing the head noun instances from a training corpus at the relevant argument slots.
This paper presents a pronoun resolution algorithm that adheres to the constraints and rules of Centering Theory (Grosz et al., 1995) and is an alternative to Brennan et al.'s 1987 algorithm. The advantages of this new model, the Left-Right Centering Algorithm (LRC), lie in its incremental processing of utterances and in its low computational overhead. The algorithm is compared with three other pronoun resolution methods: Hobbs' syntax-based algorithm, Strube's S-list approach, and the B F P Centering algorithm. ...
The excellence of a translation should be measured by the extent to which it preserves the exact meaning of the original. But so long as we have no accepted definition of meaning, much less of exact meaning, it is difficult to use such a measure. As a practical alternative, therefore, we must search for more modest, yet better defined, procedures.