Advances in stem cell biology and biomaterials development in the late 1990s have helped
drive on an ever expanding body of research in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative
medicine. Scientists realized that the key to future success of functional tissues is bridging the gap
between developmental biology and tissue engineering. We are all amazed by the high degree of
sophistication and miniaturization found in nature. Nature is, indeed, a school of science.
Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases and is characterised by gingival
inflammation and alveolar bone resorption (Savage et al. 2009). Periodontitis is a
multifactorial irreversible and cumulative condition, initiated and propagated by bacteria
and host factors (Kinane 2001). More than 500 different bacterial species are able to colonise
the oral biofilm and up to 150 different species of bacteria are possible in any individual’s
The maxillary sinus continues to grow until eruption of the permanent teeth (4). The adult sinus
is variable in its extension, in one-half of cases extending into the alveolar process forming an
alveolar recess. In these instances the sinus comes in close proximity to the roots of the maxillary
posterior teeth. With the loss of posterior teeth, the sinus can extend further into the alveolar
bone, even reaching the alveolar ridge occasionally (4).
Two histone H4 mRNA variants, H4-v.1 and histogranin mRNAs, were
detected in the rat genome and measured in various tissues and isolated
alveolar macrophages. Medium to high levels of both mRNAs were present
in the liver, adrenal glands, thymus, bone marrow and alveolar macrophag-es. H4-v.1 cDNA contained an open reading frame that coded for unmodi-fied whole histone H4, whereas histogranin cDNA lacked the first ATG
codon and contained an open reading frame that coded for modified
(Thr89) H4-(84–102). ...