in sunlight. This resulted in the development of a wide variety of sophisticated
and elegant sundials, which became the standard timekeepers. Sundials were also
used as reference for other modes of time-keeping such as hourglasses.
Time kept by this method is called apparent solar time. The time between
successive appearances of the Sun at the local meridian defines the apparent
solar day. Because of Earth’s elliptical orbit, the angular distance it covers per
day varies. It moves more rapidly in winter when it approaches perihelion than
in summer when it’s near aphelion....
The cordial co-operation of many amateur and professional astronomers
in the very successful observations of the Solar Eclipse of January 1, 1889, has again brought
forward the desirability of organizing an Astronomical Society of the Pacific, in order
that this pleasant and close association may not be lost, either as a scientific or as a social
force. You are respectfully invited to become a member of this organization, and to do your
part towards making it useful in our community.
In 1665, a book was published that inaugurated the use of the microscope to
investigate the natural world. The author was Robert Hooke, a talented artist,
architect, and amateur scientist. Hooke wrote Micrographia: Or Some
Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with
Observations and Inquiries Thereupon, at the behest of the newly chartered
Royal Society in London, for whom he was working as curator of scientific
experiments. In Micrographia, he presented the first detailed observations of
everyday objects made with his self-constructed light microscope....