Ambiguous requirements

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  • Why do requirements matter? Experience has shown that insufficient attention is paid to requirements. The price paid for this lack of focus and applied practices is systems that don't meet customer needs; take longer to develop than planned; and cost more than customers are willing to pay. Are we ready to change? Are you willing to spend some time and effort involved in practical exercises to experience how better requirements should evolve? If yes, commit to digesting the counsel of two experienced practitioners and to changing current practices to ones that will produce better results....

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  • Ambiguity in language translation is due to the presence of words in the source language with multiple non-synonymous target equivalents. A contextual analysis is required whenever a grammatical analysis fails to resolve such ambiguity. In the case of scientific and engineering literature, clues to the context can be obtained from a knowledge of the varying degrees of probability with which words occur in different fields of science.

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  • The particular domain chosen here as a case study is the problem of restoring missing accents 1 to Spanish and French text. Because it requires the resolution of both semantic and syntactic ambiguity, and offers an objective ground truth for automatic evaluation, it is particularly well suited for demonstrating and testing the capabilities of the given algorithm. It is also a practical problem with immediate application.

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  • Most previous corpus-based algorithms disambiguate a word with a classifier trained from previous usages of the same word. Separate classifiers have to be trained for different words. We present an algorithm that uses the same knowledge sources to disambiguate different words. The algorithm does not require a sense-tagged corpus and exploits the fact that two different words are likely to have similar meanings if they occur in identical local contexts.

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  • This paper presents in summary form some major points of Chapter 3 of Kurtzman, 1984.) Models of the human syntactic parsing mechanism can be classified according to the ways in which they operate upon ambiguous input. Each mode of operation carries particular requirements concerning such basic computational characteristics of the parser as i t s storage capacities and the scheduling of i t s processes, and so specifying which mode is actually embodied in human parsing is a useful approach to determining the functional organization of the human parser.

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  • This book contains most of the papers presented at the Eco-Architecture 2010 conference, which was the third edition of the International Conference on Harmonisation between Architecture and Nature. Previous editions were held in the New Forest, UK (2006) and the Algarve, Portugal (2008) and demonstrated the importance of a forum like this to discuss the characteristics and challenges of such architectural vision. Eco-Architecture implies a new approach to the design process intended to harmonise its products with nature.

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  • This is a wide-ranging and ambiguous condition, which actually refers to the need to retain some scope for manoeuvre, or policy space, so that every developing country can choose the most appropriate international trade integration policy or strategy on the basis of its social and economic characteristics and its historical evolution. These characteristics will therefore condition the rhythm, scope and phases of trade liberalisation.

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  • This paper presents a cooperative consultation system on a restricted domain. The system builds hypotheses on the user's plan and avoids misunderstandings (with consequent repair dialogues) through clarification dialogues in case of ambiguity. The role played by constraints in the generation of the answer is characterized in order to limit the cases of ambiguities requiring a clarification dialogue. The answers of the system are generated at different levels of detail, according to the user's competence in the domain. ...

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  • Today, greater emphasis is being placed on a component’s ‘machinability’ , but this term is an ambiguous one, having a variety of different meanings, depending upon the production engineer’s requirements. In fact, the machinability expression does not have an authoritative definition, despite the fact that it has been used for decades. In 1938, Ernst in his book on the ‘Physics of Metal Cutting’ , defined machinability in the following manner: ‘As a complex physical property of a metal...

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  • Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (line 10) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution? (A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal. (B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.

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  • Successful program management requires managers to plan for and deal with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Risk management and issue resolution are the vehicles for achieving this. The Government has decided to strengthen the Cabinet submission and New Policy Proposal process through ensuring a greater focus on implementation risks. A risk is an uncertain event or set of event which, should they occur, will have an effect on the achievement of objectives. These effects might not always be detrimental. A risk can be either a threat (i.e.

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  • The ambiguity in Judd’s sculpture relates to most of his sculptures conforming to box like constructions that rely on the precision of the right angle, the consequence of this is that just as square boxes have four sides, so do his sculptures, and in having four sides they can be said to be made up of parts, no matter how pervasive the quality of the orthogonal and the square are. Further to this, the repetition of squareness without variation can result in a work having little or no aesthetic significance, what is required therefore is the addition of a ‘different’...

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  • Machine learning has become the dominant approach to building natural-language processing systems. However, current approaches generally require a great deal of laboriously constructed humanannotated training data. Ideally, a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant but ambiguous perceptual environment.

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  • Lexicon definition is one of the main bottlenecks in the development of new applications in the field of Information Extraction from text. Generic resources (e.g., lexical databases) are promising for reducing the cost of specific lexica definition, but they introduce lexical ambiguity. This paper proposes a methodology for building application-specific lexica by using WordNet. Lexical ambiguity is kept under control by marking synsets in WordNet with field labels taken from the Dewey Decimal Classification. tion requirement.

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  • Responsibility charting clarifies what is required to manage activities or decisions. It helps reduce ambiguity, wasted energy, and adverse emotional reactions between individuals or teams who work interdependently.

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  • This paper shows how to use the UnfoldFold transformation to transform Projective Bilexical Dependency Grammars (PBDGs) into ambiguity-preserving weakly equivalent Context-Free Grammars (CFGs). These CFGs can be parsed in O(n3 ) time using a CKY algorithm with appropriate indexing, rather than the O(n5 ) time required by a naive encoding. Informally, using the CKY algorithm with such a CFG mimics the steps of the Eisner-Satta O(n3 ) PBDG parsing algorithm. This transformation makes all of the techniques developed for CFGs available to PBDGs. ...

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  • NLFE to databases have failed in a commercial context, largely because of two reasons. Current approaches to the management of ambiguity by relying on inference over a world model create ungoing customisation requirements. Furthermore the design of NLFEs is subject to constraints which research in CL/ NLP does not address. In particular, standard parsing techniques (including "robust" ones) require complete lexica and cannot be deployed because new data would create a constant need for dictionary update.

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Explain advantages of commercial paper and the requirements to qualify as a negotiable instrument, identify different types of negotiable instruments and the key features, apply UCC rules for situations when the terms of an instrument are ambiguous or inherently conflicting.

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  • Chapter 31 - Negotiable instruments. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Explain advantages of commercial paper and the requirements to qualify as a negotiable instrument, identify different types of negotiable instruments and the key features, apply UCC rules for situations when the terms of an instrument are ambiguous or inherently conflicting.

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