The APA (American Psychological Association) Style of referencing is an author-date system. There have been several editions of the Publication Manual, the aim of which is to aid authors in the preparation of manuscripts. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.
From its inception as a brief journal article in 1929, the Publication Manual of
the American Psychological Association has been designed to advance scholarship
by setting sound and rigorous standards for scientific communication. The
creators of the 1929 manuscript included psychologists, anthropologists, and business
managers who convened under the sponsorship of the National Research Council.
They sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify
the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.
Ten years ago when I wrote the foreword to the first edition of this book, the
concept of women’s health was changing at a rapid pace. The focus was just
shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded
perception that women’s health encompasses biological, familial, cultural, economic,
emotional, psychological, and behavioral elements of each woman and her
sociopolitical environment, beyond just the reproductive organs and across her
Thanks to my colleagues of the Psylaw-L and American Board of
Forensic Psychology Listservs for their comments and the beneﬁt of
their experience. I am also grateful to Chris Stout for his input on this
project. Finally, I wish to thank the baristas at Borders in Concord,
New Hampshire, for keeping me well supplied with espresso during
the writing of this book.
Industrial psychology began almost as soon as psychology had developed
enough of a science for it to be applied to industry. As early as the 1890s,
Hugo Munsterberg, the German American psychologist, was involved with
the selection of street car operators (cf. Koppes, 2007), and by the 1920s,
business applications of psychology in employee selection, advertising, and
organizational design were thriving. Industrial psychology was one of the
four original specialties of the American Board of Professional Psychology
(ABPP) in 1947.
Psychology at the beginning of the twenty-“rst century has
become a highly diverse “eld of scienti“c study and applied
technology. Psychologists commonly regard their discipline
as the science of behavior, and the American Psychological
Association has formally designated 2000 to 2010 as the
•Decade of Behavior.ŽThe pursuits of behavioral scientists
range from the natural sciences to the social sciences and embrace
a wide variety of objects of investigation.
Psychologist Margaret Hagen, a professor and medical industry insider, details the very real danger of this booming business. In every state, a child can be taken away from a parent on the strength of five minutes of "neutral" testimony from a social worker. A criminal suspect’s freedom or incarceration can depend on a superficial psychological examination performed by an incompetent, overworked, or, at worst, paid-off psychologist.
A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual
traits, and positive institutions promises to improve
quali~.' of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when
life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on
pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline
results in a model of the human being lacking the positive
features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity,
future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility,
and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations
of more authentic negative impulses.
Media Psychology examines the impact that 21st century media use has on human behavior, from teenage crushes on pop stars to soap fandom in adulthood. It brings together North American communication research with European media research in a variety of disciplines--psychology, sociology, communication and media studies--and in doing so, maps out the territory for media psychology. David Giles argues that psychologists have been guilty of ignoring the influence of the media over the last century, seeing it at best as a minor nuisance that will eventually go away.
The Psychologist’s Companion is intended for students as well as young professionals
and writers at all stages of their careers seeking inspiration and guidelines
for better scientific writing. This book is also a resource for researchers
in related fields.
Some years ago in one of those all too rare moments of reflection it
occurred to me that I was only three lifetimes away from the very
beginnings of modern psychology. It is generally agreed, as we will
see, that what we call "scientific psychology" began with Wundt's
laboratory at Leipzig around 1879. Similarly, applied psychology is
seen to have begun with the work of Francis Galton in England at
about the same time.
A short time later James McKeen Cattell, one of Wundfs first
American students received his Ph.D. at Leipzig and went on to work
briefly with Galton.
After the domination of behaviourism in Anglo-American psychology during the
middle of the century, the impression has been left, reflected in the many texts on
research design, that the experimental method is the central tool of psychological
research. In fact, a glance through journals will illuminate a wide array of datagathering
instruments in use outside the experimental laboratory and beyond the
This volume contains edited versions of papers that were presented at the 2001
Advertising and Consumer Psychology Conference in Seattle, Washington. This
annual conference was sponsored by the Society for Consumer Psychology (Division
23 of the American Psychological Association) with sponsorship assistance
from Accenture Institute for Strategic Change.
Based on the Sixth Ed. of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Created Nov 10, 2009. A RUNNING HEAD OR SHORT TITLE IS PROVIDED IN ALL CAPS FOR EACH PAGE OF THE PAPER Each page is numbered starting with the title page.
WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS
The recommended typeface is Times New Roman with a 12 point font size.
The manuscript title is centered and positioned in the upper half of the page. It should be no longer than 12 words.
A Guide for Writing APA Style Research Papers Susan B. Smith
Author’s name: first, middle initial, last.
Cultural diversity is one of the most important topics in the world today. Here
in the United States, we live, work, and play with an increasing number of
people from all cultures, countries, and walks of life. New immigrants alone
make up 10% of the total U.S. population, and that does not include all of the
cultural diversity that has existed in this country for decades. In many other
countries as well—in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania—people of different
countries and cultures come together more today than ever before.
This book is not a traditional style manual that prescribes mechanical
details such as the forms for levels of headings, typing requirements, and so on. A
number of excellent style manuals, including the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association, already cover these matters . Neither will you
find here a discussion of the mechanics of standard English usage; it is assumed
that you have already mastered these. Finally, it is also assumed that you have
already selected an important research topic, applied sound research methods, and
analyzed the data.
As a long-standing advocate for understanding issues of cultural and ethnic
diversity, I have served as President of APA Division 45, Society for the
Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, and currently chair the
American Psychological Association’s Commission for the Recruitment,
Retention and Training of Ethnic Minorities implementation task force
(CEMRRAT2). Both of these organizations were instrumental in the approval
of the APA Multicultural Guidelines for Practice and the promotion of empirical
research addressing mental health issues of ethnic minority clinical populations.
“Housing Our Elders” (1999) uses a supplement to the 1995 AHS on home
accessibility needs and modifications to develop a baseline of information on elderly
housing conditions, needs, and strategies. It is found that “overall, older Americans are
among the best housed citizens of a well-housed Nation”. However, “millions of elderly
households continue to live in housing that costs too much, is in substandard condition,
or fails to accommodate their physical capabilities or assistance needs”.