A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual
traits, and positive institutions promises to improve
quali~.' of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when
life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on
pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline
results in a model of the human being lacking the positive
features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity,
future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility,
and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations
of more authentic negative impulses.
Psychologist Margaret Hagen, a professor and medical industry insider, details the very real danger of this booming business. In every state, a child can be taken away from a parent on the strength of five minutes of "neutral" testimony from a social worker. A criminal suspect’s freedom or incarceration can depend on a superficial psychological examination performed by an incompetent, overworked, or, at worst, paid-off psychologist.
Cultural diversity is one of the most important topics in the world today. Here
in the United States, we live, work, and play with an increasing number of
people from all cultures, countries, and walks of life. New immigrants alone
make up 10% of the total U.S. population, and that does not include all of the
cultural diversity that has existed in this country for decades. In many other
countries as well—in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania—people of different
countries and cultures come together more today than ever before.
In 1899, the famous American psychologist, William James published
a little book called Talks to Teachers , in which he sought
to explain how to apply psychology to education — that is, he
sought to use what he called “ the science of the mind ’ s workings ”
to generate practical advice for classroom teachers. At the time,
the book was not much of a success, largely for two reasons: (a)
there was a lack of research evidence on how learning works (that
is, the science of learning), and (b) there was a lack of research -
based principles concerning how to help people learn (that is,...
Industrial psychology began almost as soon as psychology had developed
enough of a science for it to be applied to industry. As early as the 1890s,
Hugo Munsterberg, the German American psychologist, was involved with
the selection of street car operators (cf. Koppes, 2007), and by the 1920s,
business applications of psychology in employee selection, advertising, and
organizational design were thriving. Industrial psychology was one of the
four original specialties of the American Board of Professional Psychology
(ABPP) in 1947.
The Psychologist’s Companion is intended for students as well as young professionals
and writers at all stages of their careers seeking inspiration and guidelines
for better scientific writing. This book is also a resource for researchers
in related fields.
From its inception as a brief journal article in 1929, the Publication Manual of
the American Psychological Association has been designed to advance scholarship
by setting sound and rigorous standards for scientific communication. The
creators of the 1929 manuscript included psychologists, anthropologists, and business
managers who convened under the sponsorship of the National Research Council.
They sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify
the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.
As a long-standing advocate for understanding issues of cultural and ethnic
diversity, I have served as President of APA Division 45, Society for the
Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, and currently chair the
American Psychological Association’s Commission for the Recruitment,
Retention and Training of Ethnic Minorities implementation task force
(CEMRRAT2). Both of these organizations were instrumental in the approval
of the APA Multicultural Guidelines for Practice and the promotion of empirical
research addressing mental health issues of ethnic minority clinical populations.
Psychology at the beginning of the twenty-“rst century has
become a highly diverse “eld of scienti“c study and applied
technology. Psychologists commonly regard their discipline
as the science of behavior, and the American Psychological
Association has formally designated 2000 to 2010 as the
•Decade of Behavior.ŽThe pursuits of behavioral scientists
range from the natural sciences to the social sciences and embrace
a wide variety of objects of investigation.
Media Psychology examines the impact that 21st century media use has on human behavior, from teenage crushes on pop stars to soap fandom in adulthood. It brings together North American communication research with European media research in a variety of disciplines--psychology, sociology, communication and media studies--and in doing so, maps out the territory for media psychology. David Giles argues that psychologists have been guilty of ignoring the influence of the media over the last century, seeing it at best as a minor nuisance that will eventually go away.
The effect of movies on the appearance of children as witnesses in German
courts is particularly noticeable. Children, juveniles, and adults were asked by
Petra Wolf what they knew about courts.
The source of information they
most often mentioned was movies, especially American crime movies and
courtroom dramas. A group of psychologists from Kiel who published a book
for the preparation of children as witnesses found out that, even after seeing
pictures of a German courtroom, children still believed that the judge would
have a gavel or at least wear a wig.