Raman spectroscopy and optical second-harmonic (SH) spectroscopy has a very important role in studies of optical properties of materials. Our goal is to build a spectrometry system to measure weak optical signals such as Raman scattering and surface SH signals. We studied to improve an old Double Grating Spectrograph GDM-1000 (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) for wider range of wavelengths and transformed it successfully into a spectrometry system coupling with computer using Lock-in amplification technique. ...
A laser, an acronym lor light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation, is a device for generating a high-intensity,
ostensibly parallel beam of monochromatic (single
wavelength) electromagnetic radiation. The possibility of
stimulated emission was predicted by Einstein in I9I7;
based on the work of Gordon in 1955 and Schawlow and
Townes in 1958, Maiman created the first operational laser
in 1960, a ruby laser emitting a brilliant red beam of light.
Abnormal forms of prion protein (PrP
) accumulate via structural conver-sion of normal PrP (PrP
) in the progression of transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy. Under cell-free conditions, the process can be efficiently
replicated usingin vitro PrP
amplification methods, including protein mis-folding cyclic amplification.
Software reviews are a “filter” for the software process. That is, reviews are applied at various points during software engineering and serve to uncover errors and defects that can then be removed. Software reviews “purify” software engineering work products, including requirements and design models, code, and testing data.
The utility of primer pairs in SCoTs was advocated by Gorji et al. (2011). SCoT
markers are generally reproducible, and it is suggested that primer length and annealing
temperature are not the sole factors determining reproducibility (Gorji et al., 2011). They are
dominant markers, however, while a number of co-dominant markers are also generated
during amplification, and thus they could be used for genetic diversity analysis (Collard &
Mackill, 2009b). This has been validated through study of genetic diversity among rice
varieties (Collard & Mackill, 2009b).
This study describes the construction of a library of single-chain antibody
fragments (scFvs) from a single human donor by individual amplification
of all heavy and light variable domains (1.1·10
recombinants). The lib-rary was panned using the phage display technique, which allowed selection
of specific scFvs (3F and C1) capable of recognizing Cn2, the major toxic
component of Centruroides noxiusscorpion venom.