Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3].
Chloroform exerts a suppressing effect on the central nervous system. It had been used as a general anaesthetic since the 19th century, but it disappeared, because of its hepatotoxicity and arrhythmia-inducing effects. It is now being used for industrial purposes, such as a solvent, extracting reagent, refrigerant and chemical material. Chloroform poisoning can be seen in accidental, suicidal  and homicidal cases.
Local anaesthetics reversibly block neural transmission in local tissues. The drugs are bound with specific receptors located inside the sodium channels of cell membranes, and thus block the permeability of sodium ions; this is the mechanism of anaesthetic action of these drugs. As the history of local anaesthetics, Von Anrep discovered the local anaesthetic action of an alkaloid cocaine being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca. Then, Karl Koller used cocaine as a local anaesthetic in ophthalmological surgery.
Drug therapy has an effect on the management of patients in
dentistry. Many drugs produce oro-dental problems; in addition
concurrent medication can interact with drugs which the dentist may
prescribe. The aim of this dictionary is to draw together the effects of
drugs on the teeth, oral and perioral structures and highlight drug
interactions which impact on dental treatment. Drugs taken by outpatients
which may be encountered in general dental practice and
interactions with drugs contained in the Dental Practitioners Formulary
have been included.
Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system; when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis . Cocaine is being abused worldwide; its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in Japan, its abuse is not so many; but it cannot be overlooked.
Biological sciences in nursing has seen a change in status over the last 20
years. As a nurse educator, I became aware that with the introduction of
the ‘nursing model’ all signs of biology were banished from the curriculum.
Anatomy and physiology were thought to be akin to the ‘medical model’,
and as such they fell outside the nurse’s territory. At all costs, nurses had
to be seen as autonomous practitioners in their own right.
There have been many changes in veterinary medicine since the fi rst edition
of Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses was published in 2003. There is an
increasing number of specialist referral hospitals, and the speciality of emergency
and critical care has blossomed in the United Kingdom. However, still
central to much that is achieved in veterinary practice is the ability to sedate
and anaesthetise patients safely. The protocols and methods involved in veterinary
anaesthesia are often complex and vary considerably from patient to
(BQ) Part 1 book "Pharmacology for anaesthesia and intensive care" presents the following contents: Basic principles (Drug passage across the cell membrane, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, drug action,...), core drugs in anaesthetic practice (general anaesthetic agents, aeneral anaesthetic agents, local anaesthetics,...)
(BQ) Part 1 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Principles of drug action, drug absorption, distribution and excretion, drug metabolism, local anaesthetics, autonomic nervous system, autonomic drugs acting at cholinergic synapses, drugs acting on the sympathetic system, ocular pharmacology,... and other contents.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Lipid-lowering drugs, general anaesthetics, agents used in anaemias, anxiolytics and hypnotics, antiepileptic drugs, antipsychotic drugs, opioid analgesics, drugs used in nausea and vertigo, antidiabetic agents,... and other contents.
The administration of general anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking drugs is generally confined to trained specialists. Nevertheless, nonspecialists are involved in perioperative care and will benefit from an understanding of how these drugs act. Doctors from a variety of specialties use local anaesthetics and the pharmacology of these drugs is discussed in detail.
Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA)
When TIVA is used there must be a continuous intravenous infusion of
anaesthetic agent or agents; interruption from whatever cause may result
in awareness. A thorough equipment check is therefore the most
important step in reducing the incidence of awareness. Anaesthetists
using TIVA must be familiar with the drugs, the technique and all
equipment and disposables being used.
The Safe Anaesthesia Liaison Group (SALG) has produced safety
guidance on guaranteeing drug delivery during TIVA ; SALG made
the following recommendations....
Ancillary and resuscitation equipment
Check that the patient’s trolley, bed or operating table can be tilted head-
down rapidly. A resuscitation trolley and deﬁbrillator must be available in
all locations where anaesthesia is given and checked regularly in
accordance with local policies.
Equipment and drugs for rarely encountered emergencies, such as
malignant hyperthermia and local anaesthetic toxicity must be available
and checked regularly in accordance with local policies. The location of
these must be clearly signed [17, 18].