Xem 1-14 trên 14 kết quả Anaesthetic drugs
  • Introduction: Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3].

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  • Introduction: Barbiturates are being widely used as antiepileptics, hypnotics and anaesthetics ( Figure 6.1 and Table 6.1). The incidence of barbiturate poisoning cases tends to increase in Japan ( Figure 6.2) [1]. A majority of the barbiturate drugs is being controlled by the Narcotics ⊡ Figure 6.1 Structures of barbiturates. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 302 Barbiturates ⊡ Figure 6.2 Incidence of fatal barbiturate poisoning cases. Since fatal cases due to Vegetamin® tablets containing phenobarbital are many, its incidence rate is also shown in this figure.

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  • Introduction: Chloroform exerts a suppressing effect on the central nervous system. It had been used as a general anaesthetic since the 19th century, but it disappeared, because of its hepatotoxicity and arrhythmia-inducing effects. It is now being used for industrial purposes, such as a solvent, extracting reagent, refrigerant and chemical material. Chloroform poisoning can be seen in accidental, suicidal [1] and homicidal cases.

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  • Introduction: Local anaesthetics reversibly block neural transmission in local tissues. The drugs are bound with specific receptors located inside the sodium channels of cell membranes, and thus block the permeability of sodium ions; this is the mechanism of anaesthetic action of these drugs. As the history of local anaesthetics, Von Anrep discovered the local anaesthetic action of an alkaloid cocaine being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca. Then, Karl Koller used cocaine as a local anaesthetic in ophthalmological surgery.

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  • Drug therapy has an effect on the management of patients in dentistry. Many drugs produce oro-dental problems; in addition concurrent medication can interact with drugs which the dentist may prescribe. The aim of this dictionary is to draw together the effects of drugs on the teeth, oral and perioral structures and highlight drug interactions which impact on dental treatment. Drugs taken by outpatients which may be encountered in general dental practice and interactions with drugs contained in the Dental Practitioners Formulary have been included.

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  • Introduction: Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system; when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis [1]. Cocaine is being abused worldwide; its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in Japan, its abuse is not so many; but it cannot be overlooked.

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  • Biological sciences in nursing has seen a change in status over the last 20 years. As a nurse educator, I became aware that with the introduction of the ‘nursing model’ all signs of biology were banished from the curriculum. Anatomy and physiology were thought to be akin to the ‘medical model’, and as such they fell outside the nurse’s territory. At all costs, nurses had to be seen as autonomous practitioners in their own right.

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  • There have been many changes in veterinary medicine since the fi rst edition of Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses was published in 2003. There is an increasing number of specialist referral hospitals, and the speciality of emergency and critical care has blossomed in the United Kingdom. However, still central to much that is achieved in veterinary practice is the ability to sedate and anaesthetise patients safely. The protocols and methods involved in veterinary anaesthesia are often complex and vary considerably from patient to patient....

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Pharmacology for anaesthesia and intensive care" presents the following contents: Basic principles (Drug passage across the cell membrane, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, drug action,...), core drugs in anaesthetic practice (general anaesthetic agents, aeneral anaesthetic agents, local anaesthetics,...)

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Principles of drug action, drug absorption, distribution and excretion, drug metabolism, local anaesthetics, autonomic nervous system, autonomic drugs acting at cholinergic synapses, drugs acting on the sympathetic system, ocular pharmacology,... and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Lipid-lowering drugs, general anaesthetics, agents used in anaemias, anxiolytics and hypnotics, antiepileptic drugs, antipsychotic drugs, opioid analgesics, drugs used in nausea and vertigo, antidiabetic agents,... and other contents.

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  • The administration of general anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking drugs is generally confined to trained specialists. Nevertheless, nonspecialists are involved in perioperative care and will benefit from an understanding of how these drugs act. Doctors from a variety of specialties use local anaesthetics and the pharmacology of these drugs is discussed in detail.

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  • Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) When TIVA is used there must be a continuous intravenous infusion of anaesthetic agent or agents; interruption from whatever cause may result in awareness. A thorough equipment check is therefore the most important step in reducing the incidence of awareness. Anaesthetists using TIVA must be familiar with the drugs, the technique and all equipment and disposables being used. The Safe Anaesthesia Liaison Group (SALG) has produced safety guidance on guaranteeing drug delivery during TIVA [16]; SALG made the following recommendations....

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  • Ancillary and resuscitation equipment Check that the patient’s trolley, bed or operating table can be tilted head- down rapidly. A resuscitation trolley and defibrillator must be available in all locations where anaesthesia is given and checked regularly in accordance with local policies. Equipment and drugs for rarely encountered emergencies, such as malignant hyperthermia and local anaesthetic toxicity must be available and checked regularly in accordance with local policies. The location of these must be clearly signed [17, 18].

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