What is an Argument?
A strong argument attempts to persuade the reader to accept a point of view. As such, it
consists of a proposition, a declarative statement which is capable of being argued, and a
proof, a reason or ground which is supported by evidence. The evidence, in turn, is composed
of relevant facts, opinions based on facts and careful reasoning. If you are analyzing an
argument, you should look for both of these: a proposition and the evidence supporting the
This paper outlines research on processing strategies being developed for a language understanding systerN, designed to interpret the structure of arguments. For the system, arguments are viewed as trees, with claims as fathers to their evidence. Then understanding becomes a problem of developing a representative argtmlent tree, by locating each proposition of the argument at its appropriate place.
This book aims to help readers develop an understanding of what is meant by critical thinking and to develop their own reasoning skills. These skills are essential to those progressing to higher levels of academic study, whether at advanced or degree level. However, the underlying concepts are useful to anyone who wishes to:
Specific writing prompts administered during
testing are developed with the assistance of
external prompt writers who are recruited on
the basis of their expertise and to reflect the
diversity of the populations served by the
ACT. ACT prompt writers are male and female
educators from both high schools and
colleges, and they represent a variety of
geographical regions, racial and ethnic
backgrounds, and educational philosophies.
The author's aim has been to produce such a condensation of the original work as may recall its contents to
those who have read it, and may serve those who are now reading it in the place of a full body of marginal
notes. Mr. Mill's conclusions on the true province and method of Logic have a high substantive value,
independent even of the arguments and illustrations by which they are supported; and these conclusions may
be adequately, and, it is believed, with much practical utility, embodied in an epitome.
In predicate-argument structure analysis, it is important to capture non-local dependencies among arguments and interdependencies between the sense of a predicate and the semantic roles of its arguments. However, no existing approach explicitly handles both non-local dependencies and semantic dependencies between predicates and arguments.
Many Modern Ecological problems such as rain forest destruction, decreasing marine harvests, and fire suppression are directly or indirectly anthropogenic. Zooarchaeology and Conservation Biology presents an argument that conservation biology and wildlife management cannot afford to ignore zooarchaeological research--the identification and analysis of faunal remains recovered from archaeological deposits. The editors contend that we can learn important lessons by studying long-term human and nonhuman influences on biota and ecosystems.
What is at work here is a visual language that relies heavily on connotation,
as described by Barthes. These connotations underscore the intertitle’s line of
argumentation and address the sensory experience of the audience. A careful
analysis of the style involved in the image construction reveals a homogenous
pattern that can be described as a soft style. According to David Bordwell et al.
(1985: 341), the soft style emerged and became the norm in the 1920s.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2) is a nonconventional serine
protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique and tantalizing properties that is
generally considered to be an authentic and physiological inhibitor of uro-kinase. However, the fact that only a small percentage of PAI-2 is secreted
has been a long-standing argument for alternative roles for this serpin.
We present a user requirements study for Question Answering on meeting records that assesses the difficulty of users questions in terms of what type of knowledge is required in order to provide the correct answer. We grounded our work on the empirical analysis of elicited user queries. We found that the majority of elicited queries (around 60%) pertain to argumentative processes and outcomes.
SMART THINKING is a practical, step - by - step guide to improving skills in analysis and critical thinking, and the effective commonication of arguments and explanations . With an accessible and straightforward style, this book is of great use for students at university and also final - year school who are looking to improve theri analytical skills
The Texas Higher Education Assessment (THEA) was designed to ensure that students in Texas obtain
the reading, math, and writing skills necessary to take on college-level work. The test portion of the
program is administered and developed by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB)
and National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES). It was created to help educators identify students who may need
remedial help before pursuing higher-education courses.
established in the earliest history of the planet or as
the result of a continuing supply of water and the
constituents of sea water by degassing from the
In 1951 W.W. Rubey, in his Presidential Address to
the Geological Society of America, took the latter point
of view. His arguments were colored by the knowledge
available at that time of the age of the Earth and the
age of the oldest rocks. Based on the analysis of lead
isotopes in galenas, it was determined in the late 1940s
that the Earth was about 3.2 billion years old.
The study of public policy, including the methods of policy analysis, has been among the most rapidly
developing fi elds in the social sciences over the past several decades. Policy analysis emerged to
both better understand the policymaking process and to suppy policy decision makers with reliable
policy-relevant knowledge about pressing economic and social problems.
Basic Asymptotic Theory
This chapter summarizes some deﬁnitions and limit theorems that are important for studying large-sample theory. Most claims are stated without proof, as several require tedious epsilon-delta arguments. We do prove some results that build on fundamental deﬁnitions and theorems. A good, general reference for background in asymptotic analysis is White (1984). In Chapter 12 we introduce further asymptotic methods that are required for studying nonlinear models. 3.
Because of this, unless a particular analysis or argument is specifically attributable to one author, there arc few references to competing analyses, or to the huge number of books and articles dealing with tense in English. However, a selective bibli¬ography listing some of the literature that we consider basic to the study of tense can be found at the end of the book.
As a linguistic study, the book is an exploration of how one framework can
account for tense in English, rather than a comparative study of other analyses or a comparison of our analysis with the analyses of other authors. Because of this, unless a particular analysis or argument is specifically attributable to one author, there arc few references to competing analyses, or to the huge number of books and articles dealing with tense in English.
Chapter 29 ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL DATA
In analyzing discrete choices made over time, two arguments favor the use of continuous time models. (1) In most economic models there is no natural time unit within which agents make their decisions and take their actions. Often it is more natural and analytically convenient
In this article, Professor Robert Prentice takes issue with the trend of courts honoring contract-based securities fraud defenses and advocates the maintenance of a tort-based approach. Contrary to the arguments of contractarian theorists who argue that investors should be able to contractually negotiate their desired level of risk, and consequently that disclaimers and no reliance clauses should be honored, the article uses behavioral principles to undermine the assumption that humans ra-tionally contract....
This paper investigates the commonly held belief that government
spending is normally financed through a combination of taxes and
bond sales. The argument is a technical one and requires a detailed
analysis of reserve accounting at the central bank. After carefully
considering the complexities of reserve accounting, it is argued that
the proceeds from taxation and bond sales are technically incapable
of financing government spending and that modern governments
actually finance all of their spending through the direct creation of