Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid mechanics to calculate the driving force on a crack and those of experimental solid mechanics to characterize the material's resistance to fracture.In modern materials science, fracture mechanics is an important tool in improving the mechanical performance of materials and components.
René Descartes gives few philosophical arguments to directly support
his rejection of forms in favor of mechanisms . Moreover, the scattered
reasons he offers in his corpus are cryptic and hard to unpack. Hence I
will draw on Descartes’ intellectual context to reconstruct his reasoning
and shed light on his historic elimination of Scholastic Aristotelian
substantial forms from the physical world.
Over the past decade, there has been a vast explosion in new information
relating to the art and science of dermatology as well as fundamental cutaneous
biology. Furthermore, this information is no longer of interest only to
the small but growing specialty of dermatology. Scientists from a wide variety
of disciplines have come to recognize both the importance of skin in fundamental
biological processes and the broad implications of understanding
the pathogenesis of skin disease. As a result, there is now a multidisciplinary
and worldwide interest in the progress of dermatology....
The committee was tasked to determine the best instrumentation and
procedures for measuring BFD (see Box S-1). To do this, it reviewed technical
specifications, viewed demonstrations of the operation and use of current and
prospective systems, and evaluated factors such as human handling variability,
process transparency, and software variability judgment.
The committee found that given the current clay variation, a measurement
precision (standard deviation) of 0.5 mm is sufficient; instruments featuring
greater precision add little practical value to the testing process.