Early metabolic steps, including glycolysis and the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, yield a two-carbon fragment called an acetyl group, which is linked to a large cofactor known as coenzyme A (or CoA). It is during the citric acid cycle that acetyl-CoA is oxidized to the waste product, carbon dioxide, along with the reduction of the cofactors NAD+ and ubiquinone
The increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living organisms over 60 years
ago was implicated in the development of diseases and aging (Harman, 1956; 1983).
This book is a collective scientific monograph presenting several important aspects
related to ROS role in human and animal pathologies. In 1985, German scientist
Helmut Sies first denoted oxidative stress concept, which immediately attracted
attention of researchers in diverse basic fields. Several discoveries substantially
stimulated the interest to ROS as ones related to many diseases.
The glycolytic pathway converts glucose to pyruvate and produces two molecules of ATP per glucose only a small fraction of the potential energy available from glucose. Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is reduced to lactate in animals and to ethanol in yeast, and much of the potential energy of the glucose molecule remains untapped. In the presence of oxygen, however, a much more interesting and thermodynamically complete story unfolds.
Modelling of the ﬂuxes in central metabolism can be performed by combining labelling experiments with metabolite balancing. Using this approach, multiple samples from a cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in metabolic and isotopic steady state were analysed, and the metabolic ﬂuxes in central metabolism were estimated. In the various samples, the estimates of the central metabolic pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and the anaplerotic pathway, showed an unprecedented reproducibility....