Anatomy of the muscles

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  • So great a number of Treatises of Surgery, as well Ancient as Modern, have been already publish'd, that a plenary Satisfaction seems to have been long since given on this Subject, even to the Judgment of the most curious Inquirers: But if it be consider'd that a young Surgeon ought always to have in view the first Principles of this Noble Art explain'd after a familiar and intelligible manner, it will be soon acknowledg'd that there is good reason to set about the Work anew: For besides that the Writings of the Ancients being so voluminous, are not portable, they are also very intricate and...

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  • A market-leading dental anatomy textbook for dental, dental hygiene, and dental assisting students, Woelfel's Dental Anatomy focuses on anatomy of the human mouth and teeth, and is designed to help the student understand the relationship of the teeth to one another, and to the bones, muscles, nerves, and vessels associated with the teeth and face. This text does more than simply explain dental anatomy; it links the anatomy to clinical practice, giving readers a stronger and more practical understanding of tooth structure and function, morphology, anatomy, and terminology.

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  • The brain and spinal cord compose the Central Nervous System (CNS), which is the control center of the body. Inputs from muscles, involuntary organs, and senses travel through the nerves of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) into the CNS where they are interpreted. Signals may travel within the brain to separate functional areas. Instructions are then sent outward again for voluntary movement and involuntary regulation to complete the endless loop of the nervous system circuitry.

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  • Chapter 9 - Muscles and muscle tissue (part a) provides knowledge of muscle tissues and skeletal muscle. The following will be discussed in this chapter: Types of muscle tissue, special characteristics of muscle tissue, muscle functions, gross anatomy of a skeletal muscle, microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber, sliding filament model of contraction, physiology of skeletal muscle fibers,...

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  • The muscular system (part b), This chapter presents the following content: Muscles of the thorax, muscles of the abdominal wall, muscles of the pelvic floor, muscles of the perineum, superficial muscles of the thorax, superficial muscles of the posterior thorax.

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  • The aim of this chapter is to summarize and evaluate the different mechanisms and catabolic mediators involved in cancer cachexia and ageing sarcopenia since they may represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. In fact, many patients who die with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis.

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  • Coronary artery disease is almost always due to atheromatous narrowing and subsequent occlusion of the vessel. Early atheroma (from the Greek athera (porridge) and oma (lump)) is present from young adulthood onwards. A mature plaque is composed of two constituents, each associated with a particular cell population. The lipid core is mainly released from necrotic “foam cells”—monocyte derived macrophages, which migrate into the intima and ingest lipids.

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  • With new exercises, additional stretches, and more of Frédéric Delavier’s signature illustrations, you’ll gain a whole new understanding of how muscles perform during strength exercises. This one-of-a-kind best-seller combines the visual detail of top anatomy texts with the best of strength training advice.

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  • Each of us performs thousands of eye movements every day without being aware of how the brain controls them. The oculomotor system is one of the best understood motor systems not only with regard to premotor centers in the central nervous system, but also with regard to the peripheral muscles moving the eye. This has been made possible by intensive multidisciplinary research, including ophthalmologists, neurologists and basic scientists, and is reflected in comprehensive textbooks [i.e. Leigh RJ, Zee DS: The Neurology of Eye Movements. New York, Oxford University Press, 2006]....

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  • Neuro-Fuzzy Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton With EMG Signals Kazuo Kiguchi, Member, IEEE, Takakazu Tanaka, and Toshio Fukuda, Fellow, IEEE Abstract—We have been developing robotic exoskeletons to assist motion of physically weak persons such as elderly, disabled, and injured persons. The robotic exoskeleton is controlled basically based on the electromyogram (EMG) signals, since the EMG signals of human muscles are important signals to understand how the user intends to move.

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  •  "Constructive Anatomy" is George B. Bridgman's excellent book of anatomical drawing instruction. Ideal for beginning to intermediate artists, "Constructive Anatomy" begins with instruction on drawing hands and works its way through the human body giving detailed instruction on how to draw realistic human figures. Bridgman's drawing methodology builds upon the analysis of human anatomy, how the skeleton fits together, and how muscle sits upon the skeleton to create the human form.

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  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to mediate aberrant contractility in hypertension, yet the physiological roles of ROS in vascular smooth muscle contraction have remained elusive. This study aimed to examine whether ROS regulate a1-adrenoceptor-activated contraction by altering myosin phosphatase activities. Methods: Using endothelium-denuded rat tail artery (RTA) strips, effects of anti-oxidants on isometric force, ROS production, phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20), and myosin phosphatase stimulated by a1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were examined.

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Gross anatomy of a skeletal muscle, microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber, sliding filament model of contraction, physiology of skeletal muscle fibers, contraction of a skeletal muscle, muscle metabolism, force of muscle contraction, velocity and duration of contraction, adaptations to exercise.

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  • The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Force of muscle contraction, avelocity and duration of contraction, muscle fiber type, effects of exercise, effects of resistance exercise, the overload principle, smooth muscle, peristalsis, microscopic structure, innervation of smooth muscle,...and other contents.

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  • The muscular system (part a), the following will be discussed in this chapter: Skeletal muscles: functional groups, naming skeletal muscles, muscle mechanics: arrangement of fascicles, muscle mechanics: lever systems, classes of lever systems,...

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  • The muscular system (part c). In this chapter, you will learn: Muscles crossing the shoulder joint, rotator cuff anatomy and function, movement at the glenohumeral joint, muscles crossing the elbow joint, muscles of the forearm, muscles of the forearm: anterior compartment, muscles of the forearm: posterior compartment,...and other contents.

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  • In this chapter you will learn about the following: Muscles crossing hip and knee joints, movements of the thigh, summary of movement at the hip joint, muscles of the thigh that move the knee joint, fascia of the leg, muscles of the leg: movements,...

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  • After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle, and explain how it differs from skeletal muscle; briefly describe the events of cardiac muscle cell contraction; name the components of the conduction system of the heart, and trace the conduction pathway;...

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  • Those muscles of the back that are not shifted dorsally from other locations during embryonic development, but instead remain at the site of origin, are called autochthonous back muscles. The muscle tracts that jointly form the erector muscle of spine, are innervated by the dorsal branches of the spinal nerves (d 95).

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  • The inflammatory process both reduces collagen synthesis by inhibiting the smooth muscle cell and causes its death by apoptosis. Macrophages also produce a wide range of metalloproteinases capable of degrading all the components of the connective tissue matrix, including collagen. These metalloproteinases are secreted into the tissues in an inactive form and then activated by plasmin. Metalloproteinase production by macrophages is upregulated by inflammatory cytokines such as TNFá.

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