An instrument in which any of the requirements mentioned in the preceding Article is wanting is invalid as a bill of exchange, except in the cases specified in the following paragraphs: 15
A bill of exchange in which the time of payment is not specified is deemed to be payable at sight. 16
In default of special mention, the place specified beside the name of the drawee is deemed to be the place of payment, and at the same time the place of the domicile of the drawee. 17
A bill of exchange which......
In this paper, we present initial experiments in the recognition of deceptive language. We introduce three data sets of true and lying texts collected for this purpose, and we show that automatic classiﬁcation is a viable technique to distinguish between truth and falsehood as expressed in language. We also introduce a method for class-based feature analysis, which sheds some light on the features that are characteristic for deceptive text.
We specify an algorithm that builds up a hierarchy of referential discourse segments from local centering data. The spatial extension and nesting of these discourse segments constrain the reachability of potential antecedents of an anaphoric expression beyond the local level of adjacent center pairs. Thus, the centering model is scaled up to the level of the global referential structure of discourse. An empirical evaluation of the algorithm is supplied.
The λ (lambda) calculus  created by Church and Kleene in the 1930’s is at the heart of functional programming languages. We will use it as a foundation for sequential computation. The λ calculus is Turing-complete, that is, any computable function can be expressed and evaluated using the calculus. The λ calculus is useful to study programming language concepts because of its high level of abstraction. In the following sections, we will motivate the λ calculus and introduce its syntax and semantics (Section 2.
A formalism is a set of notation with well-defined semantics (namely for the interpretation of the symbols used and their manipulation), by means of which one formally expresses certain domain knowledge, which is to be utilised for specific purposes. In this paper, we are interested in formalisms which are being used or have applications in the domain of machine translation (MT).
This book has been written for people whose first language is not English, and who need to use
English in the context of banking and finance. It covers language useful for working in retail
banking, company finance departments and other situations involving financial transactions.
There is a strong focus on the language needed to communicate on financial topics, discuss
financial problems and plan projects. It does not cover rarely-used terms, or academic terms used
by economists. All the language in the book is intended to be accessible to intermediate level
students and above....
“IDIOM” - an expression in the usage of a language that is peculiar to itself In other words, it’s American Slang which you may not always get. In fact, idioms can make you totally lost in conversations! We Americans seem to roll them off our tongues very easily and we are so busy gabbing that we really are clueless when we even use them!
Like all other sciences, physics is based on experimental observations and quantitative measurements. The main objective of physics is to ﬁnd the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena and to use them to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments. The fundamental laws used in developing theories are expressed in the language of mathematics, the tool that provides a bridge between theory and experiment
Holliway and McCutchen (2004) stressed that the coordination of the author, text,
and reader representations “builds on multiple sources of interpersonal, cognitive, and
textual competencies” and may well account for most of the difficulties that children
experience with revision. In an early study of expert versus novice differences in
writers, Sommers (1980) documented that professional writers routinely and
spontaneously revise their texts extensively and globally, making deep structural
Web search is an information-seeking activity. Often times, this amounts to a user seeking answers to a question. However, queries, which encode user’s information need, are typically not expressed as full-length natural language sentences — in particular, as questions. Rather, they consist of one or more text fragments.
Generating referring expressions is a key step in Natural Language Generation. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on generating distinctive referring expressions, that is, referring expressions that uniquely identify their intended referent. While undoubtedly one of their most important functions, referring expressions can be more than distinctive. In particular, descriptive referring expressions – those that provide additional information not required for distinction – are critical to ﬂuent, efﬁcient, well-written text. ...
The noisy channel model approach is successfully applied to various natural language processing tasks. Currently the main research focus of this approach is adaptation methods, how to capture characteristics of words and expressions in a target domain given example sentences in that domain. As a solution we describe a method enlarging the vocabulary of a language model to an almost inﬁnite size and capturing their context information.
This paper describes a study in which a corpus of spoken Danish annotated with focus and topic tags was used to investigate the relation between information structure and pauses. The results show that intra-clausal pauses in the focus domain, tend to precede those words that express the property or semantic type whereby the object in focus is distinguished from other ones in the domain.
The recent approach to language teaching and learning has been focusing on communication as getting things done in the utilitarian sense. However, the core of communication, if it wishes to mean anything significant to the world at all, should be self-expression. The ultimate aim of foreign language teaching, therefore, should be to create individual learners who have their own foreign language personalities and know how to express themselves in the target language.
We investigate how novel English-derived words (anglicisms) are used in a Germanlanguage Internet hip hop forum, and what factors contribute to their uptake.
Because English has established itself as something of a global lingua franca, many languages are currently undergoing a process of introducing new loanwords borrowed from English. However, while the motivations for borrowing are well studied, including e.g.
The ability to understand spatial prepositions and motion in natural language will enable a variety of new applications involving systems that can respond to verbal directions, map travel guides, display incident reports, etc., providing for enhanced information extraction, question-answering, information retrieval, and more principled text to scene rendering.
The paper proposes a methodology for dealing with multiword expressions in natural language processing applications. It provides a practically justiﬁed taxonomy of such units, and suggests the ways in which the individual classes can be processed computationally. While the study is currently limited to Polish and English, we believe our ﬁndings can be successfully employed in the processing of other languages, with emphasis on inﬂectional ones.
Some of the meaning of a discourse is encoded in its linguistic forms. Thls is the truth-conditional meaning of the propositions those forms express and entail. Some of the meaning is suggested (or 'implicated', as Grice would say) by the fact that the encooer expresses just those propositions in just those linguistic forms in just the given contexts [ 2 ] . The first klnd of meaning is usually labeled 'semantics'; it is decoded. The second Is usually labeled 'pragmatlcs'; it is inferred from clues provided by code and context. Both kinds of meaning are related to syntax in...
Although the problem of querying a database in natural language has been studied extensively, there has been relatively little work on processing database updates expressed in natural language. To interpret update requests, several linguistic issues must be addressod that do not typically pose difficulties when dealing exclusively with queries. This paper briefly examines some of the linguistic problems encountered, and describes an implemented system that performs simple natural language database update....
This paper describes how a language-planning system can produce natural-language referring expressions that satisfy multiple goals. It describes a formal representation for reasoning about several agents' mutual knowledge using possible-worlds semantics and the general organization of a system that uses the formalism to reason about plans combining physical and linguistic actions at different levels of abstraction.